Aldopentoses as new substrates for the membrane-bound, pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glycerol (polyol) dehydrogenase of Gluconobacter sp.
- 120 Downloads
Membrane-bound, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH, or polyol dehydrogenase) of Gluconobacter sp. oxidizes various secondary alcohols to produce the corresponding ketones, such as oxidation of D-sorbitol to L-sorbose in vitamin C production. Substrate specificity of GLDH is considered limited to secondary alcohols in the D-erythro configuration at the next to the last carbon. Here, we suggest that L-ribose, D- and L-lyxoses, and L-tagatose are also substrates of GLDH, but these sugars do not meet the substrate specificity rule of GLDH. The oxygen consumption activity of wild-type Gluconobacter frateurii cell membranes depends on several kinds of sugars as compared with that of the membranes of a GLDH-negative variant. Biotransformation of those sugars with the membranes was examined to determine the reaction products. A time course measuring the pH in the reaction mixture and the increase or decrease in substrates and products on TLC suggested that oxidation products of L-lyxose and L-tagatose were ketones with unknown structures, but those of L-ribose and D-lyxose were acids. The oxidation product of L-ribose was purified and revealed to be L-ribonate by HRMS and NMR analysis. Biotransformation of L-ribose with the membranes and also with the whole cells produced L-ribonate in nearly stoichiometric amounts, indicating that the specific oxidation site in L-ribose is recognized by GLDH. Since purified GLDH produced L-ribonate without any intermediate-like compounds, we propose here a reaction model where the first carbon in the pyranose form of L-ribose is oxidized by GLDH to L-ribonolactone, which is further hydrolyzed spontaneously to produce L-ribonate.
KeywordsAcetic acid bacteria Oxidative biotransformation Gluconobacter L-ribonic acid L-ribose
We are grateful to Armin Ehrenreich (Technische Universität München, Germany) for kindly providing pKOS6b to us. We thank Yuka Narita, Takahiro Torikai, and Koichi Furuya (Yamaguchi University, Japan) for their technical assistances.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Ano Y, Hours RA, Akakabe Y, Kataoka N, Yakushi T, Matsushita K, Adachi O (2017) Membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidation of D-pentonates to 4-keto-D-pentonates, D-fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose, and D-psicose to 5-keto-D-psicose. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 81:411–418CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kulhánek M (1989) Microbial dehydrogenations of monosaccharides. In: Neidleman SL (ed) Adv Appl Microbiol (vol 34). Academic Press, pp 141–182Google Scholar
- Matsushita K, Fujii Y, Ano Y, Toyama H, Shinjoh M, Tomiyama N, Miyazaki T, Sugisawa T, Hoshino T, Adachi O (2003) 5-keto-D-gluconate production is catalyzed by a quinoprotein glycerol dehydrogenase, major polyol dehydrogenase, in Gluconobacter species. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1959–1966CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Matsushita K, Toyama H, Adachi O (1994) Respiratory chains and bioenergetics of acetic acid bacteria. In: Rose AH, Tempest DW (eds) Adv Microb Physiol, vol vol 36. Academic Press, London, pp 247–301Google Scholar
- Mientus M, Kostner D, Peters B, Liebl W, Ehrenreich A (2017) Characterization of membrane-bound dehydrogenases of Gluconobacter oxydans 621H using a new system for their functional expression. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 101:3189–3200. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-8069-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miyazaki T, Tomiyama N, Shinjoh M, Hoshino T (2002) Molecular cloning and functional expression of D-sorbitol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO3255, which requires pyrroloquinoline quinone and hydrophobic protein SldB for activity development in E. coli. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:262–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakano S, Ebisuya H (2016) Physiology of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter spp.: acetic acid resistance mechanism in acetic acid fermentation. In: Matsushita K, Toyama H, Tonouchi N, Okamoto-Kainuma A (eds) Acetic acid bacteria: ecology and physiology. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 223–234Google Scholar
- Salusjärvi T, Povelainen M, Hvorslev N, Eneyskaya EV, Kulminskaya AA, Shabalin KA, Neustroev KN, Kalkkinen N, Miasnikov AN (2004) Cloning of a gluconate/polyol dehydrogenase gene from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 12528, characterisation of the enzyme and its use for the production of 5-ketogluconate in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:306–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Russel DW (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 3rd edn. Cold SpringHarbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NYGoogle Scholar