Single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal process at high loading rate: granular reactor performance, kinetics, and microbial characterization
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For the possible highest performance of single-stage combined partial nitritation/anammox (PNA) process, a continuous complete-mix granular reactor was operated at progressively higher nitrogen loading rate. The variations in bacterial community structure of granules were also characterized using high-throughput pyrosequencing, to give a detail insight to the relationship between reactor performance and functional organism abundance within completely autotrophic nitrogen removal system. In 172 days of operation, a superior total nitrogen (TN) removal rate over 3.9 kg N/(m3/day) was stable implemented at a fixed dissolved oxygen concentration of 1.9 mg/L, corresponding to the maximum specific substrate utilization rate of 0.36/day for TN based on the related kinetics modeling. Pyrosequencing results revealed that the genus Nitrosomonas responsible for aerobic ammonium oxidation was dominated on the granule surface, which was essential to offer the required niche for the selective enrichment of anammox bacteria (genus Candidatus Kuenenia) in the inner layer. And the present of various heterotrophic organisms with general functions, known as fermentation and denitrification, could not be overlooked. In addition, it was believed that an adequate excess of ammonium in the bulk liquid played a key role in maintaining process stability, by suppressing the growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria through dual-substrate competitions.
KeywordsPartial nitritation Anammox Granular sludge Microbial community structure Substrate competition
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51308367, 51578353) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (BK20150284). The authors also acknowledge support from the Preponderant Discipline Construction Project in higher education of Jiangsu Province, China, and the Two-year International Master Program on Environmental Engineering authorized by the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (2015E0434).
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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