Cyclic lipopeptide signature as fingerprinting for the screening of halotolerant Bacillus strains towards microbial enhanced oil recovery
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Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are non-ribosomal biosurfactants produced by Bacillus species that exhibit outstanding interfacial activity. The synthesis of CLPs is under genetic and environmental influence, and representatives from different families are generally co-produced, generating isoforms that differ in chemical structure and biological activities. This study to evaluate the effect of low and high NaCl concentrations on the composition and surface activity of CLPs produced by Bacillus strains TIM27, TIM49, TIM68, and ICA13 towards microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The strains were evaluated in mineral medium containing NaCl 2.7, 66, or 100 g L−1 and growth, surface tension and emulsification activity were monitored. Based on the analysis of 16S rDNA, gyrB and rpoB sequences TIM27 and TIM49 were assigned to Bacillus subtilis, TIM68 to Bacillus vallismortis, and ICA13 to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. All strains tolerated up to 100-g L−1 NaCl, but only TIM49 and TIM68 were able to reduce surface tension at this concentration. TIM49 also showed emulsification activity at concentrations up to 66-g L−1 NaCl. ESI-MS analysis showed that the strains produced a mixture of CLPs, which presented distinct CLP profiles at low and high NaCl concentrations. High NaCl concentration favored the synthesis of surfactins and/or fengycins that correlated with the surface activities of TIM49 and TIM68, whereas low concentration favored the synthesis of iturins. Taken together, these findings suggest that the determination of CLP signatures under the expected condition of oil reservoirs can be useful in the guidance for choosing well-suited strains to MEOR.
KeywordsLipopeptides Biosurfactant Bacillus MEOR ESI-MS
We thank André Saraiva L M Antunes for proof reading the manuscript. We acknowledge PETROBRAS for the financial support (Cooperation agreement: 0050.0079828.12.9) and authorization to publish this work and Coleção de Culturas do Gênero Bacillus e Gêneros Correlatos/FIOCRUZ for the storage of B. subtilis TIM49.
We also thank the Brazilian agencies Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for research grant provided to VMMM and doctoral scholarship to BCSF, respectively. This study was funded by PETROBRAS (grant number 0050.0079828.12.9).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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