Effects of concentration of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and enzyme supplementation on cecal microbiota and performance in broiler chickens
- 477 Downloads
With the increasing production of ethanol for biofuels, a by-product of corn-based ethanol fermentation, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is finding its way into the feed of agricultural animals including cattle, pigs, poultry, sheep, goats, aquaculture species and horses. Corn DDGS contains very high levels of non-starch polysaccharides and could be considered a good source of fibre. Despite knowledge of the role of the fibre in modulating intestinal microbiota and consequently influencing health, there is currently little information on the interactions between DDGS and intestinal microbiota. We assessed the changes in the cecal microbiota of broilers feed rations supplemented with DDGS (five concentrations: 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24% w/w) with and without presence of digestive enzymes. DDGS concentration was strongly positively correlated (P = 3.7e−17, r = 0.74) with feed conversion efficiency (FCR), diminishing broiler performance with higher concentrations. Additionally, DDGS concentrations positively correlated with Richness index (P = 1.5e−3, r = 0.5), increasing the number of detectable species in the cecum. Among the most affected genera, Faecalibacterium (P = 0.032, r = −0.34) and Streptococcus (P = 7.9e−3, r = −0.39) were negatively correlated with DDGS, while Turicibacter (P = 2.8e−4, r = 0.52) was positively correlated with the DDGS concentration. Enzymes showed minimal effect on cecal microbiota.
KeywordsDDGS Enzymes Broiler Microbiota Fibre
This project was funded by the National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation (MAARIFAH), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Award Number (12-AGR-2495-02). Dragana Stanley is an ARC DECRA fellow. All data analyses were performed on the Isaac Newton High Performance Computing System at Central Queensland University, Australia, and we acknowledge the support received from Jason Bell in all aspects of High Performance Computing. We also thank Professors Robert Moore and Kerry Walsh for their constructive comments on the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
This project was internally funded by King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This project was approved by the Departmental Board of Studies on Ethics, Methodology and Welfare, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- Abudabos AM (2014) Effect of fat source, energy level and enzyme supplementation and their interactions on broiler performance. South African J Animal Science 44(3):280–287Google Scholar
- Bennett GA, Richard JL (1996) Influence of processing on Fusarium mycotoxins in contaminated grains. Food Technol 50:235–238Google Scholar
- Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, Fierer N, Pena AG, Goodrich JK, Gordon JI, Huttley GA, Kelley ST, Knights D, Koenig JE, Ley RE, Lozupone CA, McDonald D, Muegge BD, Pirrung M, Reeder J, Sevinsky JR, Turnbaugh PJ, Walters WA, Widmann J, Yatsunenko T, Zaneveld J, Knight R (2010) QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat Methods 7(5):335–336. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.f.303 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Choo YK, Oh ST, Lee KW, Kang CW, Kim HW, Kim CJ, Kim EJ, Kim HS, An BK (2014) The growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of egg-type male growing chicken and white-mini broiler in comparison with commercial broiler (Ross 308). Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 34:622–629CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ferretti J, Köhler W (2016) History of streptococcal research. In: Ferretti JJ, Stevens DL, Fischetti VA (eds) Streptococcus pyogenes: basic biology to clinical manifestations. The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, pp 1–22Google Scholar
- Jung BM, Hoerler AB, Batal, Mitchell R (2011) Evaluation of feeding distillers dried grains with solubles and the effects of dietary enzymes on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. Poultry Science Association Annual Meeting. Poult Sci 90:18Google Scholar
- Kumar V, Sinha AK, Makkar HP, de Boeck G, Becker K (2012) Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review. Crit Rev. Food Sci Nutr 52:899–935Google Scholar
- Latymer EA, Low AG, Fadden K, Sambrook IE, Woodley SC, Keal HD (1990) Measurement of transit time of digesta through sections of gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed with diets containing various sources of dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides). Arch Tierernahr 40(8):667–680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malkki A (2001) Physical properties of dietary fiber as keys to physiological functions. Cereal Foods World 46:196–199Google Scholar
- Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, Cheng J, Duncan AE, Kau AL, Griffin NW, Lombard V, Henrissat B, Bain JR, Muehlbauer MJ, Ilkayeva O, Semenkovich CF, Funai K, Hayashi DK, Lyle BJ, Martini MC, Ursell LK, Clemente JC, Van Treuren W, Walters WA, Knight R, Newgard CB, Heath AC, Gordon JI (2013) Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 341:1241214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stanley D, Hughes RJ, Geier MS, Moore RJ (2016) Bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract microbiota correlated with Improved growth and feed conversion: challenges presented for the identification of performance enhancing probiotic bacteria. Front Microbiol 7:187CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Tap J, Furet JP, Bensaada M, Philippe C, Roth H, Rabot S, Lakhdari O, Lombard V, Henrissat B, Corthier G, Fontaine E, Dore J, Leclerc M (2015) Gut microbiota richness promotes its stability upon increased dietary fibre intake in healthy adults. Environ Microbiol 17:4954–4964CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tuohy K, Brown DT, Klinder A, Costabile A, Fava F (2015) Shaping the human microbiome with prebiotiv foods—current perspectives for continued development. In: Tuohy K, Del Rio D (eds) Diet-microbiome interactions in the gut, effects on human health and disease. Elsevier, London, pp 53–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USGC (2012) A guide to distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), 3rd Edition of the DDGS User Handbook, p 5Google Scholar
- Ward NT, Zijlstra RT, Parsons C, Starkey C (2008) Non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) content of US commercial corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Poult Sci 87:39Google Scholar
- Wong C, Harris PJ, Ferguson LR (2016) Potential benefits of dietary fibre intervention in inflammatory bowel disease. Int J Mol Sci 17(6):919. doi: 10.3390/ijms17060919