Recent advances in genetic modification systems for Actinobacteria
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Actinobacteria are extremely important to human health, agriculture, and forests. Because of the vast differences of the characteristics of Actinobacteria, a lot of genetic tools have been developed for efficiently manipulating the genetics. Although there are a lot of successful examples of engineering Actinobacteria, they are still more difficult to be genetically manipulated than other model microorganisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis etc. due to the diverse genomics and biochemical machinery. Here, we review the methods to introduce heterologous DNA into Actinobacteria and the available genetic modification tools. The trends and problems existing in engineering Actinobacteria are also covered.
KeywordsActinobacteria Genetic modifications Transformation Site-specific recombination CRISPR/Cas9
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 31500070, 31600044) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20150136, BK20150151).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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