Electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection in food
- 1.1k Downloads
Pathogen detection is a critical point for the identification and the prevention of problems related to food safety. Failures at detecting contaminations in food may cause outbreaks with drastic consequences to public health. In spite of the real need for obtaining analytical results in the shortest time possible, conventional methods may take several days to produce a diagnosis. Salmonella spp. is the major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide and its absence is a requirement of the health authorities. Biosensors are bioelectronic devices, comprising bioreceptor molecules and transducer elements, able to detect analytes (chemical and/or biological species) rapidly and quantitatively. Electrochemical immunosensors use antibody molecules as bioreceptors and an electrochemical transducer. These devices have been widely used for pathogen detection at low cost. There are four main techniques for electrochemical immunosensors: amperometric, impedimetric, conductometric, and potentiometric. Almost all types of immunosensors are applicable to Salmonella detection. This article reviews the developments and the applications of electrochemical immunosensors for Salmonella detection, particularly the advantages of each specific technique. Immunosensors serve as exciting alternatives to conventional methods, allowing “real-time” and multiple analyses that are essential characteristics for pathogen detection and much desired in health and safety control in the food industry.
KeywordsSalmonella Immunosensor Food safety Pathogen Rapid detection
The authors acknowledge the financial support of the CNPq (Award number: 475174/2012-7) and CAPES Brazilian agencies. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Andrews WH, Jacobson A, Hammack T (2015) Food and Drug Administration. Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM). Chapter 5 Salmonella Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm070149. htm (accessed 06.01.16)
- Brandão D, Liébana S, Campoy S, Cortés P, Alegret S, Pividori MI (2013) Electrochemical magneto-immunosensing of Salmonella based on nano and micro-sized magnetic particles. J Phys: Conf Series 421(012020):1–7Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) Pathogens causing US foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths, 2000–2008 http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/PDFs/pathogens-complete-list-01-12.pdf. Accessed 10 December 2015
- Chumyim P, Rijiravanich P, Somasundrum M, Surareungchai W (2014) Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in milk sample using electrochemical immunoassay and enzyme amplified labeling. Int Conf Agric Environ Biol Sci (AEBS-2014) Phuket (Thailand) 24–25Google Scholar
- Clark LC Jr, Lyons C (1962) Electrode systems for continuous monitoring in cardiovascular surgery. Am NY Acad Sci 31:29–45Google Scholar
- European Food Safety Agency (2014) EFSA explains zoonotic diseases—Salmonella. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/search/doc/factsheetsalmonella.pdf. Accessed 20 October 2015
- Feng P (2010) Rapid methods for detecting foodborne pathogens. In: Food and Drug Administration. Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM). Appendix 1. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm070149.htm (accessed 06.12.14)
- Food and Drug Administration (2012) Bad bug book, foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins. Second edition. [Salmonella species, pp. 9–13]Google Scholar
- Hayes JJ, Kennmore M, Badley A, Cullen DC (1998) AFM study of antibody adsorption to polystylene microtitre plates. Nanobiotechnol 4:141–151Google Scholar
- Hu CM, Dou W, Zhao G (2014) Enzyme immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles electroposition and streptavidin-biotin system for detection of S. Pullorum & S. Gallinarum. Electrochim Acta 117:239–245Google Scholar
- Morales MD, Serra B, Guzmán-Vázquez de Prada A, Reviejo AJ, Pingarrón JM (2007) An electrochemical method for simultaneous detection and identification of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Choleraesuis using a glucose oxidase-peroxidase composite biosensor. Analyst 132:572–578CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Niraj MMGASP (2012) Histamine biosensor: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 3:4158–4168Google Scholar
- Pohanka M, Skládal P (2008) Electrochemical biosensors—principles and applications. J Appl Biomed 6:57–64Google Scholar
- Pournaras AV, Koraki T, Prodromidis MI (2008) Development of an impedimetric immunosensor based on electropolymerized polytyramine films for the direct detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in pure cultures of type strains and inoculated real samples. Anal Chim Acta 624:301–307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prashar D (2012) Self assembled monolayers—a review. Int J Chem Tech Res 4:258–265Google Scholar
- Purvis D, Leonardova O, Farmakovsky D, Cherkasov V (2003). An ultrasensitive and stable potentiometric immunosensor. Biosens and Bioelectron 18:1385–1390Google Scholar
- Saleem M (2013) Biosensors a promising future in measurements. IOP Conf. Series: Mater Sci Eng 51(012012):1–10Google Scholar
- Skládal P, Kovar D, Krajicek V, Siskova P, Pribyl J, Svabenska E (2013) Electrochemical immunosensors for detection of microorganisms. Int J Electrochem Sci 8:1635–1649Google Scholar