A novel perchlorate- and nitrate-reducing bacterium, Azospira sp. PMJ
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A novel perchlorate-reducing bacterium (PCRB), PMJ, was isolated from the mixed liquor suspended solids in the aerobic tank of a wastewater treatment plant. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), perchlorate reductase, and chlorite dismutase gene sequences revealed that PMJ belonged to the genus Azospira. PMJ was removed high-strength (700 mg/L) perchlorate and also removed low-strength (≤50 mg/L) perchlorate below the detection limit (2 μg/L) when acetate was used as a sole and carbon source. The maximum specific perchlorate utilization rate, q max, was 0.96 mg ClO4 −/mg dry cell weight day, and the half-saturation constant, K S , was lower than 0.002 mg ClO4 −/L. PMJ also utilized inorganic electron donors [(H2, S0, and Fe(II)] with perchlorate as an electron acceptor. Perchlorate reduction by PMJ was completely inhibited by oxygen and chlorate but was not inhibited by nitrate. In the presence of similar concentrations (100∼140 mg/L) of nitrate and perchlorate, PMJ simultaneously removed both electron acceptors. Therefore, it was concluded that the strains PMJ might possess separate pathways for perchlorate and nitrate reduction. These results indicated that Azospira sp. PMJ could be efficiently used for treating perchlorate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater because many of these water bodies are known to contain both perchlorate and nitrate. In addition, low K S value and autotrophic perchlorate reduction of PMJ might be useful to design the biological treatment systems.
KeywordsAzospira sp. PMJ Perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PCRB) Simultaneous perchlorate and nitrate reduction Autotrophic perchlorate reduction Kinetic parameters
This subject was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as “Advanced Technology Program for Environmental Industry” under grant No. 2013001340002.
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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