Sulfur volatiles of microbial origin are key contributors to human-sensed truffle aroma
- 738 Downloads
Truffles are symbiotic fungi in high demand for the aroma of their fruiting bodies which are colonized by a diverse microbial flora. Specific sulfur containing volatiles (thiophene derivatives) characteristic of the white truffle Tuber borchii were recently shown to be derived from the bacterial community inhabiting truffle fruiting bodies. Our aim here was to investigate whether thiophene derivatives contributed to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii. Furthermore, we questioned whether the concentration of thiophene volatiles was affected by freezing or whether it differed in truffles from distinct geographical origins. Gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC-O) analysis revealed that thiophene derivatives were major contributors to the aroma of T. borchii. Of four thiophene derivatives detected in this study, 3-methyl-4,5-dihydrothiophene was the most important one in terms of its contribution to the overall aroma. The relative concentration of thiophene derivatives was unaffected by freezing; however, it differed in samples collected in distinct geographical locations (Italy versus New Zealand). The causes of this variability might be differences in storage conditions and/or in bacterial community composition of the fruiting bodies; however, further work is needed to confirm these hypotheses. Overall, our results demonstrate that thiophene derivatives are major contributors to the human-sensed aroma of T. borchii.
KeywordsTruffles Tuber borchii Thiophene derivatives Aroma-active compounds Volatiles Sensory analysis
We thank Carolyn Doyle for technical support with the GC-O-MS and the sensory judges who took part in this study.
Financial support was provided through a grant from the German Research Foundation/Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), grant number 1191/4-1, and by the LOEWE research funding program of the government of Hessen, in the framework of the Integrative Fungal Research Cluster (IPF).
Use of human subjects for this study was reviewed by the University of California Davis Institutional Review Board and was granted exempt status (Category 6).
Conflict of interest
RS declares that a patent has been filed regarding the production of truffle aroma using truffle-associated microbes (Splivallo and Maier 2011). The other author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
- Antony-Babu S, Deveau A, Van Nostrand JD, Zhou J, Le Tacon F, Robin C, Frey-Klett P, Uroz S (2013) Black truffle-associated bacterial communities during the development and maturation of Tuber melanosporum ascocarps and putative functional roles: Tuber melanosporum-associated bacterial communities. Environ Microbiol 16:2831–47. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12294 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barbieri E, Guidi C, Bertaux J, Frey-Klett P, Garbaye J, Ceccaroli P, Saltarelli R, Zambonelli A, Stocchi V (2007) Occurrence and diversity of bacterial communities in Tuber magnatum during truffle maturation. Environ Microbiol 9:2234–2246. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01338.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barbieri E, Ceccaroli P, Saltarelli R, Guidi C, Potenza L, Basaglia M, Fontana F, Baldan E, Casella S, Ryahi O, Zambonelli A, Stocchi V (2010) New evidence for nitrogen fixation within the Italian white truffle Tuber magnatum. Fungal Biol 114:936–942. doi: 10.1016/j.funbio.2010.09.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bellesia F, Pinetti A, Bianchi A, Tirillini B (1996) Volatile compounds of the white truffle Tuber magnatum Pico from middle Italy. Flavour Frag J 11:239–243. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199607)11:4<239::AID-FFJ573>3.0.CO;2-A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bellesia F, Pinetti A, Tirillini B, Bianchi A (2001) Temperature-dependent evolution of volatile organic compounds in Tuber borchii from Italy. Flavour Frag J 16:1–6. doi: 10.1002/1099-1026(200101/02)16:1<1::AID-FFJ936>3.0.CO;2-Y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Buzzini P, Gasparetti C, Turchetti B, Cramarossa MR, Vaughan-Martini A, Martini A, Pagnoni UM, Forti L (2005) Production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by yeasts isolated from the ascocarps of black (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) and white (Tuber magnatum Pico) truffles. Arch Microbiol 184:187–193. doi: 10.1007/s00203-005-0043-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Culleré L, Ferreira V, Chevret B, Venturini ME, Sánchez-Gimeno AC, Blanco D (2010) Characterisation of aroma active compounds in black truffles (Tuber melanosporum) and summer truffles (Tuber aestivum) by gas chromatography–olfactometry. Food Chem 122:300–306. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.02.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dravnieks A (1985) Atlas of odor character profiles. Astm Intl, Philadelphia, USAGoogle Scholar
- Gioacchini AM, Menotta M, Guescini M, Saltarelli R, Ceccaroli P, Amicucci A, Barbieri E, Giomaro G, Stocchi V (2008) Geographical traceability of Italian white truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico) by the analysis of volatile organic compounds. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:3147–3153. doi: 10.1002/rcm.3714 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martin F, Kohler A, Murat C, Balestrini R, Coutinho PM, Jaillon O, Montanini B, Morin E, Noel B, Percudani R, Porcel B, Rubini A, Amicucci A, Amselem J, Anthouard V, Arcioni S, Artiguenave F, Aury J-M, Ballario P, Bolchi A, Brenna A, Brun A, Buée M, Cantarel B, Chevalier G, Couloux A, Da Silva C, Denoeud F, Duplessis S, Ghignone S, Hilselberger B, Iotti M, Marçais B, Mello A, Miranda M, Pacioni G, Quesneville H, Riccioni C, Ruotolo R, Splivallo R, Stocchi V, Tisserant E, Viscomi AR, Zambonelli A, Zampieri E, Henrissat B, Lebrun M-H, Paolocci F, Bonfante P, Ottonello S, Wincker P (2010) Périgord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms of symbiosis. Nature 464:1033–1038. doi: 10.1038/nature08867 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Splivallo R, Maier C (2011) Production of natural truffle flavours from truffle mycelium (in French). Patent publication nb PCT/IB2010/052913Google Scholar
- Talou T, Delmas M, Gaset A (1989) Black Perigord truffle: from aroma analysis to aromatizer formulation. In: Charalambous G (ed) Flavors and off-flavors ’89: Proceedings of the 6th International Flavor Conference, Rethymnon, Crete, Greece, 5–7 July 1989. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 715–728Google Scholar
- White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols, a guide to methods and applications. Academic, San Diego, CA, pp 315–322Google Scholar
- Zeppa S, Gioacchini AM, Guidi C, Guescini M, Pierleoni R, Zambonelli A, Stocchi V (2004) Determination of specific volatile organic compounds synthesised during Tuber borchii fruit body development by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18:199–205. doi: 10.1002/rcm.1313 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar