Enzyme-based formulations for decontamination: current state and perspectives
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- Grover, N., Dinu, C.Z., Kane, R.S. et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2013) 97: 3293. doi:10.1007/s00253-013-4797-x
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Development of noncorrosive, cost-effective, environmentally benign, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial formulations is necessary for clinical, industrial, and domestic purposes. Many current decontaminating formulations are effective, but they require the use of strong oxidizing agents or organic solvents that have deleterious effects on human health and the surrounding environment. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has motivated researchers to develop enzyme-based self-decontaminating formulations as alternatives to such chemical decontamination approaches. Hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes can be used to deactivate pathogens, including bacteria, spores, viruses, and fungi. Laccases, haloperoxidases, and perhydrolases catalyze the generation of biocidal oxidants, such as iodine, bromine, hypohalous acid (e.g., HOCl or HOBr), and peracetic acid. These oxidants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Due to the multi-pathway action of these oxidants, it has proven extremely difficult for microbes to gain resistance. Thus far, few examples have been reported on enzyme-based antimicrobial formulations. For these reasons, various enzyme-containing antimicrobial formulations are highlighted in this review.