Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 93, Issue 1, pp 1–16 | Cite as

Engineering of routes to heparin and related polysaccharides

  • Ujjwal Bhaskar
  • Eric Sterner
  • Anne Marie Hickey
  • Akihiro Onishi
  • Fuming Zhang
  • Jonathan S. Dordick
  • Robert J. Linhardt
Mini-Review

Abstract

Anticoagulant heparin has been shown to possess important biological functions that vary according to its fine structure. Variability within heparin’s structure occurs owing to its biosynthesis and animal tissue-based recovery and adds another dimension to its complex polymeric structure. The structural variations in chain length and sulfation patterns mediate its interaction with many heparin-binding proteins, thereby eliciting complex biological responses. The advent of novel chemical and enzymatic approaches for polysaccharide synthesis coupled with high throughput combinatorial approaches for drug discovery have facilitated an increased effort to understand heparin’s structure–activity relationships. An improved understanding would offer potential for new therapeutic development through the engineering of polysaccharides. Such a bioengineering approach requires the amalgamation of several different disciplines, including carbohydrate synthesis, applied enzymology, metabolic engineering, and process biochemistry.

Keywords

Bioengineered heparin Applied enzymology Biosynthesis Chemical synthesis Chemoenzymatic synthesis Metabolic engineering 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ujjwal Bhaskar
    • 1
  • Eric Sterner
    • 1
  • Anne Marie Hickey
    • 2
  • Akihiro Onishi
    • 2
  • Fuming Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jonathan S. Dordick
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Robert J. Linhardt
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  2. 2.Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary StudiesRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical EngineeringRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  5. 5.Department of Materials Science & EngineeringRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  6. 6.Department of Chemistry and Chemical BiologyRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA

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