Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 75, Issue 5, pp 977–982 | Cite as

Chemistry, physiological properties, and microbial production of hydroxycitric acid

  • Takashi Yamada
  • Hiroyuki Hida
  • Yasuhiro YamadaEmail author


The tropical plants Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa produce hydroxycitric acid (HCA), of which the absolute configurations are (2S,3S) and (2S,3R), respectively. (2S,3S)-HCA is an inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase, which is involved in fatty acid synthesis. (2S,3R)-HCA inhibits pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, leading to a reduction in carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, we review current knowledge on the structure, biological occurrence, and physiological properties of HCA. The availability of HCA is limited by the restricted habitat of its source plants and the difficulty of stereoselective organic synthesis. Hence, in our recent study, thousands of microbial strains were screened and finally two bacterial strains were, for the first time, found to produce trace amounts of HCA. The HCA variants produced were the Hibiscus-type (2S,3R) enantiomer. Subsequent genome shuffling rapidly generated a mutant population with improved HCA yield relative to the parent strain of bacteria. These bacteria are a potential alternative source of natural HCA.


Hydroxycitric acid Microbial production Genome shuffling Streptomyces 



The authors are cooperating within the “High-Tech Research Center” Project for Private Universities on Evolution of Green Science for Quality Improvement of Environmental and Health: matching fund subsidy from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), 2004–2008.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Yamada
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Hida
    • 2
  • Yasuhiro Yamada
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Life Science and BiotechnologyFukuyama UniversityFukuyama, HiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Technical Research LaboratoriesKyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd.YamaguchiJapan

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