Microbial aldolases as C–C bonding enzymes—unknown treasures and new developments
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- Samland, A.K. & Sprenger, G.A. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2006) 71: 253. doi:10.1007/s00253-006-0422-6
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Aldolases are a specific group of lyases that catalyze the reversible stereoselective addition of a donor compound (nucleophile) onto an acceptor compound (electrophile). Whereas most aldolases are specific for their donor compound in the aldolization reaction, they often tolerate a wide range of aldehydes as acceptor compounds. C–C bonding by aldolases creates stereocenters in the resulting aldol products. This makes aldolases interesting tools for asymmetric syntheses of rare sugars or sugar-derived compounds as iminocyclitols, statins, epothilones, and sialic acids. Besides the well-known fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, other aldolases of microbial origin have attracted the interest of synthetic bio-organic chemists in recent years. These are either other dihydroxyacetone phosphate aldolases or aldolases depending on pyruvate/phosphoenolpyruvate, glycine, or acetaldehyde as donor substrate. Recently, an aldolase that accepts dihydroxyacetone or hydroxyacetone as a donor was described. A further enlargement of the arsenal of available chemoenzymatic tools can be achieved through screening for novel aldolase activities and directed evolution of existing aldolases to alter their substrate- or stereospecifities. We give an update of work on aldolases, with an emphasis on microbial aldolases.