Skip to main content

The use of microorganisms for the formation of metal nanoparticles and their application

Abstract

Nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. The development of reliable experimental protocols for the synthesis of nanomaterials over a range of chemical compositions, sizes, and high monodispersity is one of the challenging issues in current nanotechnology. In the context of the current drive to develop green technologies in material synthesis, this aspect of nanotechnology is of considerable importance. Biological systems, masters of ambient condition chemistry, synthesize inorganic materials that are hierarchically organized from the nano- to the macroscale. Recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of nanoparticles are a relatively new and exciting area of research with considerable potential for development. This review describes a brief overview of the current research worldwide on the use of microorganisms in the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles and their applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  • Ahmad A, Mukherjee P, Mandal D, Senapati S, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry M (2002) Enzyme mediated extracellular synthesis of CdS nanoparticles by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. J Am Chem Soc 124:12108–12109

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad A, Senapati S, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry M (2003a) Extracellular biosynthesis of monodisperse gold nanoparticles by a novel extremophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora sp. Langmuir 19:3550–3553

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad A, Senapati S, Khan MI, Ramani R, Srinivas V, Sastry M (2003b) Intracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a novel alkalotolerant actinomycete, Rhodococcus species. Nanotechnology 14:824–828

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad A, Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Mandal D, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry M (2003c) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Collect Surf B 28:313–318

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bansal V, Rautaray D, Ahmad A, Sastry M (2004) Biosynthesis of zirconia nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. J Mater Chem 14:3303–3305

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beveridge TJ, Murray RGE (1980) Site of metal deposition in the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol 141:876–887

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beveridge TJ, Hughes MN, Lee H, Leung KT, Poole RK, Savvaidis I, Silver S, Trevors JT (1997) Metal–microbe interactions: contemporary approaches. Adv Microb Physiol 38:178–243

    Google Scholar 

  • Chan WCW, Maxwell DJ, Gao X, Bailey RE, Han M, Nie S (2002) Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13:40–46

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chandrasekharan N, Kamat PV (2000) Improving the photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured TiO2 films by adsorption of gold nanoparticles. J Phys Chem B 104:10851–10857

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham DP, Lundie LL (1993) Precipitation of cadmium by Clostridium thermoaceticum. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:7–14

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dameron CT, Reese RN, Mehra RK, Kortan AR, Carroll PJ, Steigerwald ML, Brus LE, Winge DR (1989) Biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide quantum semiconductor crystallites. Nature 338:596–597

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Daniel MC, Astruc D (2004) Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology. Chem Rev 104:293–346

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dickson DPE (1999) Nanostructured magnetism in living systems. J Magn Magn Mater 203:46–49

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fortin D, Beveridge TJ (2000) From biology to biotechnology and medical applications. In: Baeuerien E (ed) Biomineralization, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 7–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Gole A, Dash C, Ramakrishnan V, Sainkar SR, Mandale AB, Rao M, Sastry M (2001) Pepsin–gold colloid conjugates: preparation, characterization, and enzymatic activity. Langmuir 17:1674–1679

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grunberg K, Wawer C, Tebo BM, Schuler D (2001) A large gene cluster encoding several magnetosome proteins is conserved in different species of magnetotactic bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4573–4582

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hosea M, Greene B, Mcpherson R, Henzl M, Alexander MD, Darnall DW (1986) Accumulation of elemental gold on the alga Chlorella vulgaris. Inorg Chim Acta 123:161–165

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Joerger R, Klaus T, Granqvist C-G (2000) Biologically produced silver–carbon composite materials for optically functional thin film coatings. Adv Mater 12:407–409

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Klaus T, Joerger R, Olsson E, Granqvist C-G (1999) Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13611–13614

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Klaus-Joerger T, Joerger R, Olsson E, Granqvist C-G (2001) Bacteria as workers in the living factory: metal-accumulating bacteria and their potential for materials science. Trends Biotechnol 19:15–20

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Konishi Y, Nomura T, Tsukiyama T, Saitoh N (2004) Microbial preparation of gold nanoparticles by anaerobic bacterium. Trans Mater Res Soc Jpn 29:2341–2343

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kowshik M, Vogel W, Urban J, Kulkarni SK, Paknikar KM (2002a) Microbial synthesis of semiconductor PbS nanocrystallites. Adv Mater 14:815–818

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kowshik M, Deshmukh N, Vogel W, Urban J, Kulkarni SK, Paknikar KM (2002b) Microbial synthesis of semiconductor CdS nanoparticles, their characterization, and their use in the fabrication of an ideal diode. Biotechnol Bioeng 78:583–588

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kowshik M, Ashtaputre S, Kharrazi S, Vogel W, Urban J, Kulkarni SK, Paknikar KM (2003) Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a silver-tolerant yeast strain MKY3. Nanotechnology 14:95–100

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kroger N, Deutzmann R, Sumper M (1999) Polycationic peptides from diatom biosilica that direct silica nanosphere formation. Science 286:1129–1132

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Krolikowska A, Kudelski A, Michota A, Bukowska J (2003) SERS studies on the structure of thioglycolic acid monolayers on silver and gold. Surf Sci 532:227–232

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar A, Mandal S, Selvakannan PR, Parischa R, Mandale AB, Sastry M (2003) Investigation into the interaction between surface-bound alkylamines and gold nanoparticles. Langmuir 19:6277–6282

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Labrenz M, Druschel GK, Thomsen-Ebert T, Gilbert B, Welch SA, Kemner KM, Logan GA, Summons RE, Stasio GD, Bond PL, Lai B, Kelly SD, Banfield JF (2000) Formation of sphalerite (ZnS) deposits in natural biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Science 290:1744–1747

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lee H, Purdon AM, Chu V, Westervelt RM (2004) Controlled assembly of magnetic nanoparticles from magnetotactic bacteria using microelectromagnets. Nano Lett 4:995–998

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lovley DR, Stolz JF, Nord GL, Philips EJP (1987) Anaerobic production of magnetite by a dissimilatory iron-reducing microorganism. Nature 330:252–254

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lowenstam HA (1981) Minerals formed by organisms. Science 211:1126–1131

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mann S (1993) Molecular tectonics in biomineralization and biomimetic materials chemistry. Nature 365:499-505

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mann S (ed) (1996) Biomimetic materials chemistry. VCH, New York, pp 1-40

    Google Scholar 

  • Mehra RK, Winge DR (1991) Metal ions resistance in fungi: molecular mechanisms and their regulated expression. J Cell Biochem 45:30-40

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mukherjee P, Ahmad A, Mandal D, Senapati S, Sainkar SR, Khan MI, Ramani R, Parischa R, Ajayakumar PV, Alam M, Sastry M, Kumar R (2001a) Bioreduction of AuCl4 ions by the fungus, Verticillium sp. and surface trapping of the gold nanoparticles formed. Angew Chem Int Ed 40:3585-3588

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mukherjee P, Ahmad A, Mandal D, Senapati S, Sainkar SR, Khan MI, Parischa R, Ajayakumar PV, Alam M, Kumar R, Sastry M (2001b) Fungus mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their immobilization in the mycelial matrix: a novel biological approach to nanoparticle synthesis. Nano Lett 1:515-519

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Mandal D, Ahmad A, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry M (2002) Extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Chembiochem 3:461-463

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nair B, Pradeep T (2002) Coalescence of nanoclusters and formation of submicron crystallites assisted by Lactobacillus strains. Cryst Growth Des 2:293-298

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oliver S, Kupermann A, Coombs N, Lough A, Ozin GA (1995) Lamellar aluminophosphates with surface patterns that mimic diatom and radiolarian microskeletons. Nature 378:47-50

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Peto G, Molnar GL, Paszti Z, Geszti O, Beck A, Guczi L (2002) Electronic structure of gold nanoparticles deposited on SiOx/Si(100). Mater Sci Eng C 19:95-99

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Philipse AP, Maas D (2002) Magnetic colloids from magnetotactic bacteria: chain formation and colloidal stability. Langmuir 18:9977-9984

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pum D, Sleytr UB (1999) The application of bacterial S-layers in molecular nanotechnology. Trends Biotechnol 17:8-12

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reese RN, Winge DR (1988) Sulfide stabilization of the cadmium–γ-glutamyl peptide complex of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Biol Chem 263:12832-12835

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roh Y, Lauf RJ, McMillan AD, Zhang C, Rawn CJ, Bai J, Phelps TJ (2001) Microbial synthesis and characterization of metal-substituted magnetites. Solid State Commun 118:529-534

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sastry M, Ahmad A, Khan MI, Kumar R (2004) Microbial nanoparticle production. In: Niemeyer CM, Mirkin CA (eds) Nanobiotechnology, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, pp 126-135

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Scarano G, Morelli E (2003) Properties of phytochelatin-coated CdS nanocrystallites formed in a marine phytoplanktonic alga (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Bohlin) in response to Cd. Plant Sci 165:803-810

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Senapati S, Ahmad A, Khan MI, Sastry M, Kumar R (2005) Extracellular biosynthesis of bimetallic Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles. Small 1:517-520

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schuler D (1999) Formation of magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 1:79-86

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shankar SS, Ahmad A, Parischa R, Sastry M (2003) Bioreduction of chloroaurate ions by geranium leaves and its endophytic fungus yields gold nanoparticles of different shapes. J Mater Chem 13:1822-1826

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Silver S (1996) Bacterial resistance to toxic metal ions—a review. Gene 179:9-19

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Silver S (2003) Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver compounds. FEMS Microbiol Rev 27:341-353

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Simkiss K, Wilbur KM (1989) Biomineralization. Academic press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Slawson RM, Van Dyke MI, Lee H, Trevor JT (1992) Germanium and silver resistance, accumulation and toxicity in microorganisms. Plasmid 27:73-79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sleytr UB, Messner P, Pum D, Sara M (1999) Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S layers): from supramolecular cell structure to biomimetics and nanotechnology. Angew Chem Int Ed 38:1035-1054

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Southam G, Beveridge TJ (1994) The in vitro formation of placer gold by bacteria. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:4527-4530

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Southam G, Beveridge TJ (1996) The occurrence of sulfur and phosphorus within bacterially derived crystalline and pseudocrystalline octahedral gold formed in vitro. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:4369–4376

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Spring H, Schleifer KH (1995) Diversity of magnetotactic bacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol 18:147-153

    Google Scholar 

  • Stephen JR, Macnaughton SJ (1999) Developments in terrestrial bacterial remediation of metals. Curr Opin Biotechnol 10:230-233

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sweeney RY, Mao C, Gao X, Burt JL, Belcher AM, Georgiou G, Iverson BL (2004) Bacterial biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide nanocrystals. Chem Biol 11:1553-1559

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Watson JHP, Ellwood DC, Soper AK, Charnock J (1999) Nanosized strongly-magnetic bacterially-produced iron sulfide materials. J Magn Magn Mater 203:69-72

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Watson JHP, Croudace IW, Warwick PE, James PAB, Charnock JM, Ellwood DC (2001) Adsorption of radioactive metals by strongly magnetic iron sulfide nanoparticles produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sep Sci Technol 36:2571-2607

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang C, Vali H, Romanek CS, Phelps TJ, Liu SV (1998) Formation of single-domain magnetite by a thermophilic bacterium. Am Mineral 83:1409–1418

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank S. Senapati, Dr. A. Ahmad, Dr. M.I. Khan, Dr. M. Sastry, and Dr. R. Kumar for their enthusiastic contributions to the experimental work and for their helpful discussions. We also thank Prof. A. Steinbuchel for supporting this review.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Deendayal Mandal.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mandal, D., Bolander, M.E., Mukhopadhyay, D. et al. The use of microorganisms for the formation of metal nanoparticles and their application. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69, 485–492 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-005-0179-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-005-0179-3

Keywords

  • Silver Nanoparticles
  • Gold Nanoparticles
  • Fungal Biomass
  • Verticillium
  • Magnetotactic Bacterium