Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 68, Issue 2, pp 174–182 | Cite as

Bioconversion of lutein using a microbial mixture—maximizing the production of tobacco aroma compounds by manipulation of culture medium

  • Eduardo Rodríguez-Bustamante
  • Gabriela Maldonado-Robledo
  • Marco Antonio Ortiz
  • Carlos Díaz-Ávalos
  • Sergio SanchezEmail author
Biotechnological Products and Process Engineering


The generation of aroma compounds by carotenoid cleavage in the 9–10 position was studied, due to the importance of these compounds in the flavor and fragrance industry. The bioconversion of the carotenoid lutein to C13 norisoprenoids utilizing a microbial mixture composed of Trichosporon asahii and Paenibacillus amylolyticus was carried out by a fermentation process. Applying an experimental design methodology, the effects of nutritional factors on the production of aroma compounds present in the tobacco profile were studied. After an assessment of the significance of each nutritional factor, the levels of the variables yielding the maximum response were calculated. Glucose, tryptone, and yeast extract exerted a strong negative effect over the objective function, with glucose being the strongest. Lutein possessed a positive effect over the tobacco aroma production, while sodium chloride and trace elements showed no influence over the process. The yield attained after culture medium manipulation was almost ten-fold higher, compared with the base medium; and the aroma mixture was characterized as: 7,8-dihydro-β-ionol (95.2%), 7,8-dihydro-β-ionone (3.7%), and β-ionone (1.1%).


Carotenoid Lutein Astaxanthin Trichosporon Mass Spectral Library 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are indebted to Beatriz Ruiz and Laura Escalante for technical support in this work and to Elizabeth Langley and Romina Rodriguez-Sanoja for revising the manuscript. E.R.-B. is the recipient of a fellowship from the Dirección General de Estudios de Posgrado, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduardo Rodríguez-Bustamante
    • 1
  • Gabriela Maldonado-Robledo
    • 1
  • Marco Antonio Ortiz
    • 1
  • Carlos Díaz-Ávalos
    • 2
  • Sergio Sanchez
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento Biología Molecular y Biotecnología del Instituto de Investigaciones BiomédicasUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMéxicoMéxico
  2. 2.Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y SistemasUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMéxicoMéxico

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