Evaluation of white-rot fungi for detoxification and decolorization of effluents from the green olive debittering process
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Wastewater produced by the debittering process of green olives (GOW) is rich in polyphenolics and presents high chemical oxygen demand and alkalinity values. Eight white-rot fungi (Abortiporus biennis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, Irpex lacteus, Lentinus tigrinus, Panellus stipticus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes hirsuta) were grown in GOW for 1 month and the reduction in total phenolics, the decolorization activity and the related enzyme activities were compared. Phenolics were efficiently reduced by P. ostreatus (52%) and A. biennis (55%), followed by P. stipticus (42%) and D. squalens (36%), but only P. ostreatus had high decolorization efficiency (49%). Laccase activity was the highest in all of the fungi, followed by manganese-independent peroxidase (MnIP). Substantial manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was observed only in GOW treated with P. ostreatus and A. biennis, whereas lignin peroxidase (LiP) and veratryl alcohol oxidase (VAOx) activities were not detected. Early measurements of laccase activity were highly correlated (r 2=0.91) with the final reduction of total phenolics and could serve as an early indicator of the potential of white-rot fungi to efficiently reduce the amount of total phenolics in GOW. The presence of MnP was, however, required to achieve efficient decolorization. Phytotoxicity of GOW treated with a selected P. ostreatus strain did not decline despite large reductions of the phenolic content (76%). Similarly, in GOW treated with purified laccase from Polyporus pensitius, a reduction in total phenolics which exceeded 50% was achieved; however, it was not accompanied by a decline in phytotoxicity. These results are probably related to the formation of phenoxy radicals and quinonoids, which re-polymerize in the absence of VAOx but do not lead to polymer precipitation in the treated GOW.
KeywordsChemical Oxygen Demand Total Phenolic Laccase Activity Pleurotus Pleurotus Ostreatus
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