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Microbial Ecology

, Volume 76, Issue 1, pp 240–257 | Cite as

Location, Root Proximity, and Glyphosate-Use History Modulate the Effects of Glyphosate on Fungal Community Networks of Wheat

  • Daniel C. Schlatter
  • Chuntao Yin
  • Ian Burke
  • Scot Hulbert
  • Timothy PaulitzEmail author
Soil Microbiology

Abstract

Glyphosate is the most-used herbicide worldwide and an essential tool for weed control in no-till cropping systems. However, concerns have been raised regarding the long-term effects of glyphosate on soil microbial communities. We examined the impact of repeated glyphosate application on bulk and rhizosphere soil fungal communities of wheat grown in four soils representative of the dryland wheat production region of Eastern Washington, USA. Further, using soils from paired fields, we contrasted the response of fungal communities that had a long history of glyphosate exposure and those that had no known exposure. Soil fungal communities were characterized after three cycles of wheat growth in the greenhouse followed by termination with glyphosate or manual clipping of plants. We found that cropping system, location, year, and root proximity were the primary drivers of fungal community compositions, and that glyphosate had only small impacts on fungal community composition or diversity. However, the taxa that responded to glyphosate applications differed between rhizosphere and bulk soil and between cropping systems. Further, a greater number of fungal OTUs responded to glyphosate in soils with a long history of glyphosate use. Finally, fungal co-occurrence patterns, but not co-occurrence network characteristics, differed substantially between glyphosate-treated and non-treated communities. Results suggest that most fungi influenced by glyphosate are saprophytes that likely feed on dying roots.

Keywords

Glyphosate Fungi Networks Wheat Triticum aestivum Microbiome 

Supplementary material

248_2017_1113_MOESM11_ESM.gif (198 kb)
Supplemental Figure 1 Networks of both positive (blue edges) and negative (red edges) (GIF 198 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (355 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 355 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM12_ESM.gif (208 kb)
Supplemental Figure 2 Networks of both positive (blue edges) and negative (red edges) associations in rhizosphere soil. Nodes (OTUs) are colored by the phyla to which they were classified. (GIF 207 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM2_ESM.tiff (444 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 444 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM13_ESM.png (492 kb)
Supplemental Figure 3 Networks of positive co-associations in bulk soil as described in Figure 8, with nodes labeled with OTU identifiers. (GIF 258 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM3_ESM.tiff (328 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 327 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM14_ESM.gif (220 kb)
Supplemental Figure 4 Networks of negative co-associations in bulk soil with nodes labeled with OTU identifiers. Edges specific to each network are colored red where those shared between networks in the same cropping system are colored gray. Nodes are colored by the module to which they belong in the corresponding NG network. (GIF 219 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM4_ESM.tiff (462 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 461 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM15_ESM.gif (296 kb)
Supplemental Figure 5 Networks of positive co-associations in rhizosphere soil as described in Figure 9, with nodes labeled with OTU identifiers. (GIF 296 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM5_ESM.tiff (1 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 1.00 MB)
248_2017_1113_MOESM16_ESM.gif (291 kb)
Supplemental Figure 6 Networks of negative co-associations in rhizosphere soil with nodes labeled with OTU identifiers. Edges in specific to each network are colored red where those shared between networks in the same cropping system are colored gray. Nodes are colored by the module to which they belong in the corresponding NG network. (GIF 290 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM6_ESM.tiff (855 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 854 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM7_ESM.xlsx (1.5 mb)
Supplemental Table 1 Soil analyses of locations. (XLSX 1.50 MB)
248_2017_1113_MOESM8_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplemental Table 2 Forward and reverse primer designs for ITS illumina sequencing. (DOCX 13 kb)
248_2017_1113_MOESM9_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplemental Table 3 ANOVA F-statistics and p-values for fungal richness and diversity indices among treatments in 2015 and 2016. (DOCX 14 kb)

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel C. Schlatter
    • 1
  • Chuntao Yin
    • 2
  • Ian Burke
    • 3
  • Scot Hulbert
    • 2
  • Timothy Paulitz
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.USDA-ARS, Wheat Health, Genetics and Quality Research UnitWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  3. 3.Department of Crop and Soil SciencesWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

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