Atmospheric Dispersal of Bioactive Streptomyces albidoflavus Strains Among Terrestrial and Marine Environments
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Members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus clade, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, are widespread among predominant terrestrial lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata and Xanthoria parietina) and diverse intertidal and subtidal marine macroalgae, brown red and green (Phylum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta) from the Cantabrian Cornice. In addition to these terrestrial and coastal temperate habitats, similar strains were also found to colonize deep-sea ecosystems and were isolated mainly from gorgonian and solitary corals and other invertebrates (Phylum Cnidaria, Annelida, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Porifera) living up to 4700-m depth and at a temperature of 2–4 °C in the submarine Avilés Canyon. Similar strains have been also repeatedly isolated from atmospheric precipitations (rain drops, snow, and hailstone) collected in the same area throughout a year observation time. These ubiquitous strains were found to be halotolerant, psychrotolerant, and barotolerant. Bioactive compounds with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. These include antibacterials (paulomycins A and B), antifungals (maltophilins), antifungals displaying also cytotoxic activities (antimycins and 6-epialteramides), and the antitumor compound fredericamycin. A hypothetical dispersion model is here proposed to explain the biogeographical distribution of S. albidoflavus strains in terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments.
KeywordsActinobacteria Lichens Seaweeds Corals Avilés Canyon Clouds Antibiotic Antitumor
This study was financially supported by the Universidad de Oviedo (UNOV-11-MA-02), Gobierno del Principado de Asturias (SV-PA-13-ECOEMP-62), and Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Proyecto DOSMARES/BIOCANT (MICINN-10-CTM2010-21810-C03-02). The authors are grateful to Ricardo Anadón and all other participants in the BIOCANT3 cruise. The authors want to thank all the people who contributed to sample collection, especially to Gloria Blanco Sotura, Manuela Blanco, Rubén Medina, and Noé Medina. We are also grateful to Santiago Cal for his valuable help, to José L. Caso and José A. Guijarro for continuous support and to Carlos Sialer for his help at the beginning of this work. We finally thank Miguel Campoamor and Marcos García for their excellent technical assistance and M. Carmen Macián (CECT) for her help in the identification of the strains. This is a contribution of the Asturias Marine Observatory.
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