Microbial Ecology

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 363–368 | Cite as

Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Genes, and Genetic Lineages of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Healthy Dogs in Tunisia

  • Haythem Gharsa
  • Karim Ben Slama
  • Elena Gómez-Sanz
  • Carmen Lozano
  • Naouel Klibi
  • Ahlem Jouini
  • Lilia Messadi
  • Abdellatif Boudabous
  • Carmen TorresEmail author
Environmental Microbiology


Nasal swabs of 100 healthy dogs were obtained in 2011 in Tunisia and tested for Staphylococcus pseudintermedius recovery. Antimicrobial resistance profile and virulence gene content were determined. Multilocus-sequence-typing (MLST) and SmaI-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were investigated. S. pseudintermedius was recovered in 55 of the 100 tested samples (55 %), and one isolate per sample was further studied. All 55 S. pseudintermedius isolates were susceptible to methicillin (MSSP) but showed resistance to the following antimicrobials (% resistant isolates/resistance gene): penicillin (56.4/blaZ), tetracycline (40/tetM), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (23.7), fusidic acid (9), kanamycin (3.7/aph(3´)-Ia), erythromycin-clindamycin (1.8/erm(B)), streptomycin (1.8/ant(6)-Ia), chloramphenicol (1.8) and ciprofloxacin (1.8). The following toxin genes were identified (% of isolates): lukS/F-I (98.2), expA (5.5), se-int (98.2), sec canine (1.8), siet (100), sea (5.5), seb (3.6), sec (10.9), sed (54.5), sei (5.5), sej (29.1), sek (3.6), ser (9.1), and hlg v (38.2). Ten different sequence-types were detected among 11 representative MSSP isolates: ST20, ST44, ST69, ST70, ST78, ST100, ST108, ST160, ST161, and ST162, the last three ones revealing novel alleles or allele combinations. Eleven different PFGE-patterns were identified in these isolates. The nares of healthy dogs could be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant and virulent MSSP, highlighting the presence of the recently described exfoliating gene expA and several enterotoxin genes.


Teicoplanin Mupirocin Nasal Swab Fusidic Acid Enterotoxin Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study has been possible thanks to an Integrated Action financed by the Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional al Desarrollo (AECID) from the Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores of Spain (A1/038210/11) and from the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. E. Gómez-Sanz has a pre-doctoral fellowship from the Gobierno de La Rioja, C. Lozano has a pre-doctoral fellowship from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad of Spain. We thank the team of the National School of Veterinary Medicine of Sidi Thabet, Tunisia, for their help in sample collection.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haythem Gharsa
    • 1
  • Karim Ben Slama
    • 1
  • Elena Gómez-Sanz
    • 2
  • Carmen Lozano
    • 2
  • Naouel Klibi
    • 1
  • Ahlem Jouini
    • 1
  • Lilia Messadi
    • 3
  • Abdellatif Boudabous
    • 1
  • Carmen Torres
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratoire des Microorganismes et Biomolécules Actives, Faculté des Sciences de TunisUniversité Tunis El ManarTunisTunisia
  2. 2.Área de Bioquímica y Biología MolecularUniversidad de La RiojaLogroñoSpain
  3. 3.Ecole Nationale de Médecine VétérinaireUniversité de La ManoubaSidi ThabetTunisia
  4. 4.Departamento de Agricultura y AlimentaciónUniversidad de La RiojaLogroñoSpain

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