Skip to main content

Bacterial Community Composition in Different Sediments from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a Comparison of Four 16S Ribosomal DNA Clone Libraries

Abstract

The regional variability of sediment bacterial community composition and diversity was studied by comparative analysis of four large 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone libraries from sediments in different regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Thermaikos Gulf, Cretan Sea, and South lonian Sea). Amplified rDNA restriction analysis of 664 clones from the libraries indicate that the rDNA richness and evenness was high: for example, a near-1:1 relationship among screened clones and number of unique restriction patterns when up to 190 clones were screened for each library. Phylogenetic analysis of 207 bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from the sediment libraries demonstrated that Gamma-, Delta-, and Alphaproteobacteria, Holophaga/Acidobacteria, Planctomycetales, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were represented in all four libraries. A few clones also grouped with the Betaproteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Spirochaetales, Chlamydiae, Firmicutes, and candidate division OPl 1. The abundance of sequences affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria was higher in libraries from shallow sediments in the Thermaikos Gulf (30 m) and the Cretan Sea (100 m) compared to the deeper South Ionian station (2790 m). Most sequences in the four sediment libraries clustered with uncultured 16S rDNA phylotypes from marine habitats, and many of the closest matches were clones from hydrocarbon seeps, benzene-mineralizing consortia, sulfate reducers, sulk oxidizers, and ammonia oxidizers. LIBSHUFF statistics of 16S rDNA gene sequences from the four libraries revealed major differences, indicating either a very high richness in the sediment bacterial communities or considerable variability in bacterial community composition among regions, or both.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4

References

  1. SG Acinas J Antón F Rodríguez-Valera (1999) ArticleTitleDiversity of free-living and attached bacteria in offshore western Mediterranean waters as depicted by analysis of genes encoding 16S rDNA Appl Environ Microbiol 65 514–522 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXpvFCltA%3D%3D Occurrence Handle9925576

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. SG Acinas V Klepac-Ceraj D Hunt C Pharino I Ceraj D Distel MF Polz (2004) ArticleTitleFine-scale phylogenetic architecture of a complex bacterial community Nature 430 551–554 Occurrence Handle10.1038/nature02649 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXmtValsbk%3D Occurrence Handle15282603

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. SG Acinas LA Marcelino V Klepac-Ceraj MF Polz (2004) ArticleTitleDivergence and redundancy of 16S rDNA sequences in genomes with multiple rrn operons J Bacterial 186 2629–2635 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXjsFKrt7w%3D Occurrence Handle10.1128/JB.186.9.2629-2635.2004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. SG Acinas F Rodrígez-Valera C Pedrós-Alió (1997) ArticleTitleSpatial and temporal variation in marine bacterioplankton diversity as shown by RFLP fingerprinting of PCR amplified 16S rDNA FEMS Microbiol Ecol 24 27–40 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXlvVKnsLw%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. SF Altschul TL Madden AA Schaffer J Zhang Z Zhang W Miller D Lipman (1997) ArticleTitleGapped BLAST and PSI_blast: a new generation of protein database search programs Nucleic Acids Res 25 3389–3402 Occurrence Handle10.1093/nar/25.17.3389 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXlvFyhu7w%3D Occurrence Handle9254694

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. RI Amann W Ludwig KH Schleifer (1995) ArticleTitlePhylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation Microbiol Rev 59 143–169 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXkvVGmurk%3D Occurrence Handle7535888

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. N Bano JT Hollibaugh (2002) ArticleTitlePhylogenetic composition of bacterioplankton assemblages from the Arctic Ocean Appl Environ Microbiol 68 505–518 Occurrence Handle10.1128/AEM.68.2.505-518.2002 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XhtV2gurs%3D Occurrence Handle11823184

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. PRP Barnett J Watson D Connelly (1984) ArticleTitleA multiple corer for taking virtually undisturbed sediment samples from shelf bathyal and abyssal sediments Oceanol Acta 7 399–408

    Google Scholar 

  9. V Boivin-Jahns R Ruimy A Bianchi S Daumas R Christen (1996) ArticleTitleBacterial diversity in a deep-subsurface clay environment Appl Environ Microbiol 62 3405–3412 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK28XlsFeqtr8%3D Occurrence Handle8795233

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. JP Bowman RD McCuaig (2003) ArticleTitleBiodiversity, community structural shifts, and biogeography of prokaryotes within Antarctic continental shelf sediment Appl Environ Microbiol 69 2463–2483 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjslOlsrw%3D Occurrence Handle12732511

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. JP Bowman SM Rea SA McCammon TA McMeekin (2000) ArticleTitleDiversity and community structure within anoxic sediment from marine salinity meromistic lakes and a coastal meromistic marine basin, Versfold Hills, Eastern Antarctica Environ Microbiol 2 227–237 Occurrence Handle10.1046/j.1462-2920.2000.00097.x Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjslSnsbc%3D Occurrence Handle11220308

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. T Brinkhoff SM Sievert J Kuever G Muyzer (1999) ArticleTitleDistribution and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing Thiomicrospira spp. at a shallow-water hydrothermal vent in the Aegean Sea (Milos, Greece) Appl Environ Microbiol 65 3843–3849 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXlvFeqt7o%3D Occurrence Handle10473384

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. A Chao (1984) ArticleTitleNonparametric estimation of the number of classes in a population Stand J Stat 11 265–270

    Google Scholar 

  14. MJ Coolen H Cypionka AM Sass H Sass J Overmann (2002) ArticleTitleOngoing modification of Mediterranean Pleistocene sapropels mediated by prokaryotes Science 28 2407–2410

    Google Scholar 

  15. R Danovaro A Dell'Anno M Fabiano A Pusceddu A Tselepides (2001) ArticleTitleDeep-sea ecosystem response to climate changes: the eastern Mediterranean case study Trends Ecol Evol 16 505–510 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02215-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. R Danovaro A Dell'Anno A Pusceddu M Fabiano (1999) ArticleTitleNucleic acid concentrations (DNA, RNA) in the continental and deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean: relationship with seasonally varying organic inputs and bacterial dynamics Deep-Sea Res Part 146 1077–1094

    Google Scholar 

  17. R Danovaro A Dinet G Duineveld A Tselepides (1999) ArticleTitleBenthic response to particulate fluxes in different trophic environments: a comparison between the Gulf of Lions-Catalan Sea (Western-Mediterranean) and the Cretan Sea (Eastern-Mediterranean) Prog Oceanogr 44 287–312 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00030-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. R Danovaro D Marrale A Dell'Anno N Della Croce A Tselepides M Fabiano (2000) ArticleTitleBacterial response to seasonal changes in labile organic matter composition on the continental shelf and bathyal sediments of the Cretan Sea Prog Oceanogr 46 345–366

    Google Scholar 

  19. RC Dugdale FR Wilkerson (1988) ArticleTitleNutrient sources and primary production in the Eastern Mediterranean Oceanol Acta 9 178–184

    Google Scholar 

  20. J Felsenstein (1985) ArticleTitleConfidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap Evolution 39 783–791

    Google Scholar 

  21. J Felsenstein (1981) ArticleTitleEvolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach J Mol Evol 17 368–376 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF01734359 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXls1Cisr8%3D Occurrence Handle7288891

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. A Gogou M Apostolaki EG Stephanou (1998) ArticleTitleDetermination oforganic molecular markers in marine aerosols and sediments: one-step flash chromatography compound class fractionation andcapillary gas chromatographic analysis J Chromatogr A 799 215–231 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0021-9673(97)01106-0 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXhvFKjtbk%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. A Gogou I Bouloubassi EG Stephanou (2000) ArticleTitleMarine organic geochemistry of the Eastern Mediterranean: 1. Aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in Cretan Sea surficial sediments Mar Chem 68 265–282 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0304-4203(99)00082-1 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXptF2ktg%3D%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. JP Gray RP Herwig (1996) ArticleTitlePhylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments Appl Environ Microbiol 62 4049–4059 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xms1Kiuro%3D Occurrence Handle8899989

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. JI Hedges JH Stern (1984) ArticleTitleCarbon and nitrogen determinations of carbonate-containing solids Limnol Oceanogr 29 657–663 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXls1akurY%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. MC Horner-Devine MA Leibold VH Smith BJM Bohannan (2003) ArticleTitleBacterial diversity patterns along a gradient of primary productivity Ecol Lett 6 613–622

    Google Scholar 

  27. P Hugenholtz BM Goebel NR Pace (1998) ArticleTitleImpact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity J Bacteriol 180 4765–4774 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmt1Sgu7k%3D Occurrence Handle9733676

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. L Ignatiades (1969) ArticleTitleAnnual cycles, species diversity and succession of phytoplankton in lower Saronikos Bat, Aegean Sea Mar Biol 3 196–200 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00360951

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. AP Karageorgis CL Anagnostou (2001) ArticleTitleParticulate matter spatial–temporal distribution and associated surface sediment properties: Thermaikos Gulf and Sporades Basin, NW Aegean Sea Cont Shelf Res 21 2141–2153 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0278-4343(01)00048-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. DJ Lane (1991) 16S/23S rDNA sequencing Stackebrandt M Goodfellow (Eds) Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics Wiley Chichester 115–175

    Google Scholar 

  31. L Li C Kato K Horikoshi (1999) ArticleTitleBacterial diversity in deep-sea sediments from different depths Biodivers Conserv 8 659–677 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1008848203739

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. L Li C Kato K Horikoshi (1999) ArticleTitleMicrobial diversity in sediments collected from the deepest cold-seep area, the Japan Trench Mar Biotechnol 1 391–400 Occurrence Handle10.1007/PL00011793 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXmslKiurw%3D Occurrence Handle10489418

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. C Lorenzen J Jeffrey (1980) ArticleTitleDetermination of chlorophyll in sea water UNESCO Tech Pap Mar Sci 35 1–20

    Google Scholar 

  34. W Ludwig SH Bauer M Bauer I Held G Kirchhof R Schulze I Huber S Spring A Hartmann KH Schleifer (1997) ArticleTitleDetection and in situ identification of representatives of a widely distributed new bacterial phylum FEMS Microbiol Lett 153 181–190 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXltFWkt78%3D Occurrence Handle9252585

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. VM Madrid JY Aller RC Aller AY Chistoserdov (2001) ArticleTitleHigh prokaryote diversity and analysis of community structure in mobile mud deposits off French Guiana: identification of twonew bacterial candidate divisions FEMS Microbiol Ecol 37 197–209 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXovVCju70%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. BL Maidak JR Cole TG Lilbum CT Parker P-R Saxman SuffixJr RJ Farris GM Garrity GJ Olsen TM Schmidt JM Tiedje (2001) ArticleTitleThe RDP-II (Ribosomal Database Project) Nucleic Acids Res 29 173–174 Occurrence Handle10.1093/nar/29.1.173 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXjtlWmsr0%3D Occurrence Handle11125082

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. P Malanotte-Rizzoli BB Manca M Ribera d'Alcalá A Theocharis A Bergamasco D Bregant G Budillon G Civitarese D Georgopoulos A Michelato E Sansone P Scarazzato E Souvermezoglou (1997) ArticleTitleA synthesis of the Ionian Sea hydrography, circulation and water mass pathways during POEM-Phase-I Prog Oceanogr 39 153–204 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0079-6611(97)00013-X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. B Morasch HH Richnow B Schink RU Meckenstock (2001) ArticleTitleStable hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation during microbial toluene degradation: mechanistic and environmental aspects Appl Environ Microbiol 67 4842–4849 Occurrence Handle10.1128/AEM.67.10.4842-4849.2001 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXns1WitLw%3D Occurrence Handle11571192

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. CL Moyer (2001) Molecular phylogeny: applications and implications for marine microbiology JH Paul (Eds) Methods in Microbiology. Marine Microbiology Academic Press San Diego 375–394

    Google Scholar 

  40. CJ Phillips Z Smith TM Embley JI Prosser (1999) ArticleTitlePhylogenetic differences between particle-associated and planktonic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the β subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea Appl Environ Microbiol 65 779–786 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXpvFGjtA%3D%3D Occurrence Handle9925616

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. F Pichinoty J Asselineau M Mandel (1984) ArticleTitleCaractérisation biochimique de Bacillus benzoevornns sp. nov., une nouvelle espèce filamenteuse, engainée et mésophile, dégradant divers acides aromatiques et phénols Ann Microbiol 135B 209–217 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL2MXkt1GqtA%3D%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. PN Polymenakou S Bertilsson A Tselepides EG Stephanou (2005) ArticleTitleLinks between geographic location, environmental factors and microbial community composition in sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Microb Ecol 49 367–378 Occurrence Handle10.1007/s00248-004-0274-5 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DC%2BD2MzmslWntw%3D%3D Occurrence Handle16003476

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. MF Polz CM Cavanaugh (1998) ArticleTitleBias in template-to-product ratios in multitemplate PCR Appl Environ Microbiol 64 3724–3730 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXms1entrc%3D Occurrence Handle9758791

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. S Psarra A Tselepides L Ignatiades (2000) ArticleTitlePrimary productivity in the oligotrophic Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean): seasonal and interannual variability Prog Oceanogr 46 187–204 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0079-6611(00)00018-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. R Pukall O Päuker D Buntefuß G Ulrichs P Lebaron L Bernard T Guindulain J Vives-Rego E Stackebrandt (1999) ArticleTitleHigh sequence diversity of Altevomonas mancleodii-related cloned and cellular 16S rDNAs from a Mediterranean seawater mesocosm experiment FEMS Microbiol Ecol 28 335–344 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXit1Wru74%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. K Ravenschlag K Sahm J Pemthaler R Amann (1999) ArticleTitleHigh bacterial diversity in permanently cold marine sediments Appl Environ Microbiol 65 3982–3989 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXlvFeqtbs%3D Occurrence Handle10473405

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. J Sambrook DW Russel (2001) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual EditionNumber3 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Cold Spring Harbor, NY

    Google Scholar 

  48. AM Sass H Sass MJL Coolen H Cypionka J Overmann (2001) ArticleTitleMicrobial communities in the chemocline of a hypersaline deep-sea basin (Urania basin, Mediterranean Sea) Appl Environ Microbiol 67 5392–5402 Occurrence Handle10.1128/AEM.67.12.5392-5402.2001 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXovFehsL4%3D Occurrence Handle11722884

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. H Schäfer P Servais G Muyzer (2000) ArticleTitleSuccessional changes in the genetic diversity of a marine bacterial assemblage during confinement Arch Microbiol 173 138–145 Occurrence Handle10795685

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. SM Sievert T Brinkhoff G Muyzer W Ziebis J Kuever (1999) ArticleTitleSpatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations along an environmental gradient at a shallow submarine hydrothermal vent near Milos Island (Greece) Appl Environ Microbiol 65 3834–3842 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXlvFeqt70%3D Occurrence Handle10473383

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. SM Sievert J Kuever G Muyzer (2000) ArticleTitleIdentification of 16S ribosomal DNA-defined bacterial populations at a shallow submarine hydrothermal vent near Milos Island (Greece) Appl Environ Microbiol 66 3102–3109 Occurrence Handle10.1128/AEM.66.7.3102-3109.2000 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXkslKltLk%3D Occurrence Handle10877814

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. DR Singleton MA Furlong SL Rathbun WB Whitman (2001) ArticleTitleQuantitative comparisons of 16S rDNA gene sequences libraries from environmental samples Appl Environ Microbiol 67 4374–4376 Occurrence Handle10.1128/AEM.67.9.4374-4376.2001 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmslWitrk%3D Occurrence Handle11526051

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. JEM Stach LA Maldonado DG Masson AC Ward M Goodfellow AT Bull (2003) ArticleTitleStatistical approaches for estimating actinobacterial diversity in marine sediments Appl Environ Microbiol 69 6189–6200 Occurrence Handle10.1128/AEM.69.10.6189-6200.2003 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXotlKjsLo%3D Occurrence Handle14532080

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. O Strunk W Ludwig (1996) ARB: A Software Environment for Sequence Data, 2.1.1 Department of Microbiology, Technical University of Munich Munich

    Google Scholar 

  55. M Suzuki SJ Giovannoni (1996) ArticleTitleBias caused by template annealing in the amplification mixtures of 16S rDNA genes by PCR Appl Environ Microbiol 62 625–630 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK28XovVCrug%3D%3D Occurrence Handle8593063

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. A Teske K-U Hinrichs V Edgcomb A Gomez Particlede Vera D Kysela SP Sylva ML Sogin HW Jannasch (2002) ArticleTitleMicrobial diversity of hydrothermal sediments in the Guaymas basin: evidence for anaerobic methanotrophic communities Appl Environ Microbiol 68 1994–2007 Occurrence Handle10.1128/AEM.68.4.1994-2007.2002 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XivFGlu7Y%3D Occurrence Handle11916723

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. JR Thompson LA Marcelino MF Polz (2002) ArticleTitleHeteroduplexes in mixed-template amplifications: formation, consequences and elimination by “reconditioning PCR” Nucleic Acids Res 30 2083–2088 Occurrence Handle10.1093/nar/30.9.2083 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XktFGhu74%3D Occurrence Handle11972349

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. V Torsvik F Lise Daae R-A Sandaa L Øvreås (1998) ArticleTitleNovel techniques for analyzing microbial diversity in natural and perturbed environments J Biotechnol 64 53–62 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0168-1656(98)00103-5 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXntV2ku7s%3D Occurrence Handle9823658

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. V Torsvik L Ølvreås TF Thingstand (2002) ArticleTitleProkaryotic diversity—magnitude, dynamics and controlling factors Science 296 1064–1066 Occurrence Handle10.1126/science.1071698 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xjslantrc%3D Occurrence Handle12004116

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. A Tselepides V Zervakis T Polychronaki R Danovaro G Chronis (2000) ArticleTitleDistribution of nutrients and particulate organic matter in relation to the prevailing hydrographic features of the Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean) Prog Oceanogr 46 113–142

    Google Scholar 

  61. H Urakawa K Kita-Tsukamoto K Ohwada (1999) ArticleTitleMicrobial diversity in marine sediments from Sagami bay and Tokyo bay, Japan, as determined by 16S rDNA gene analysis Microbiology 145 3305–3315 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXnsVGns7s%3D Occurrence Handle10589740

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. KL Vergin E Urbach JL Stein EF DeLong BD Lanoil SJ Giovannoni (1998) ArticleTitleScreening of a fosmid library of marine environmental genomic DNA fragments reveals four clones related to members of the order Planctomycetales Appl Environ Microbiol 64 3075–3078 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXlsVOht7g%3D Occurrence Handle9687477

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. F Wintzingerode Particlevon UB Göbel E Stackebrandt (1997) ArticleTitleDetermination of microbial diversity in environmental samples: pitfalls of PCR-based rDNA analysis FEMS Microbiol Ecol 21 213–229

    Google Scholar 

  64. A Wagner N Blackstone P Cartwright M Dick B Misof P Snow GP Wagner J Bartels M Murtha J Pendleton (1994) ArticleTitleSurveys of gene families using polymerase chain reaction: PCR selection and PCR drift Syst Biol 43 250–261

    Google Scholar 

  65. H Zhang Y Sekiguchi S Hanada P Hugenholtz H Kim Y Kamagata K Nakamura (2003) ArticleTitle Gemmatimonas aurantica gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 1155–1163 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXmsF2itL8%3D Occurrence Handle12892144

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. J Zhou B Xia DS Treves L-Y Wu TL Marsh RV O'Neill AV Palumbo JM Tiedje (2002) ArticleTitleSpatial and resource factors influencing high microbial diversity in soil Appl Environ Microbiol 68 326–334 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xjt1WmtQ%3D%3D Occurrence Handle11772642

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The officers and the crew of the R/Vs Aegaeo and Philia are acknowledged for their assistance during the sampling. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council (grant 2002-4580 to S.B.) and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Special Planning (grant 2002-0291 to S.B.). Sampling cruises were supported by the commission of the European Communities (through the Energy and Environment projects INTERPOL and ADIOS) and the Greek Ministry of Development (General Secretariat of Research and Technology).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Stefan Bertilsson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Polymenakou, P.N., Bertilsson, S., Tselepides, A. et al. Bacterial Community Composition in Different Sediments from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a Comparison of Four 16S Ribosomal DNA Clone Libraries. Microb Ecol 50, 447–462 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-005-0005-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-005-0005-6

Keywords

  • Bacterial Community
  • Clone Library
  • Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Bacterial Community Composition
  • Candidate Division