Massive chimney structures, which are characteristic of many hydrothermally active zones, harbor diverse microbial communities containing both thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microbes. However, vent chimneys ultimately become hydrothermally inactive, and the changes that occur in the microbial communities upon becoming inactive have not been documented. We thus collected inactive chimneys from two geologically and geographically distinct hydrothermal fields, Iheya North in the western Pacific Ocean and the Kairei field in the Indian Ocean. The chimneys displayed easily distinguishable strata, which were analyzed with regard to both mineralogical and microbiological properties. X-ray diffraction pattern and energy-dispersive spectroscopic analyses revealed that the main mineral components of the chimney substructures from Iheya North and the Kairei field were barite (BaSO4) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), respectively. Microbial cell densities in the substructures determined by DAPI counting ranged from 1.7 × 107 cells g−1 to 3.0 × 108 cells g−1 . The proportions of archaeal rDNA in the whole microbial rDNA assemblages in all substructures were, at most, a few percent as determined by quantitative fluorogenic PCR. The microbial rDNA clone analysis and whole-cell fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a community that was decidedly different from any communities previously reported in active chimneys. Curiously, both samples revealed the abundant presence of a group of Bacteria related to a magnetosome-bearing bacterium, “ Magnetobacterium bavaricum” of the Nitrospirae division. These results suggest that inactive chimneys provide a distinct microbial habitat.
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We thank the captains and crews of the R/Vs Natsushima and Yokosuka and the DSVs Shinkai 2000 and 6500 operation groups for their technical expertise. We also thank Katsuyuki Uematsu and Tadashi Yokoyama for their help with the electron microprobe and X-ray powder diffractometer, respectively. We are grateful to Hisako Hirayama, Takuro Nunoura, Hanako Oida, and Masae Suzuki for their laboratory assistance. Mineralogical characterization was partly performed at the facility of the Mineralogical Institute of University of Tokyo.
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Suzuki, Y., Inagaki, F., Takai, K. et al. Microbial Diversity in Inactive Chimney Structures from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Systems. Microb Ecol 47, 186–196 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-003-1014-y
- Metal Sulfide
- Western Pacific Ocean
- Related Bacterium
- Iron Silicate