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Intracavitary contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in children: review with procedural recommendations and clinical applications from the European Society of Paediatric Radiology abdominal imaging task force

Abstract

Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) has become an important supplementary tool in many clinical applications in children. Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography and intravenous US contrast agents have proved useful in routine clinical practice. Other applications of intracavitary contrast-enhanced US, particularly in children, have not been widely investigated but could serve as a practical and radiation-free problem-solver in several clinical settings. Intracavitary contrast-enhanced US is a real-time imaging modality similar to fluoroscopy with iodinated contrast agent. The US contrast agent solution is administered into physiological or non-physiological body cavities. There is no definitive list of established indications for intracavitary US contrast agent application. However, intracavitary contrast-enhanced US can be used for many clinical applications. It offers excellent real-time spatial resolution and allows for a more accurate delineation of the cavity anatomy, including the internal architecture of complex collections and possible communications within the cavity or with the surrounding structures through fistulous tracts. It can provide valuable information related to the insertion of catheters and tubes, and identify related complications such as confirming the position and patency of a catheter and identifying causes for drainage dysfunction or leakage. Patency of the ureter and biliary ducts can be evaluated, too. US contrast agent solution can be administered orally or a via nasogastric tube, or as an enema to evaluate the gastrointestinal tract. In this review we present potential clinical applications and procedural and dose recommendations regarding intracavitary contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

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Correspondence to Damjana Ključevšek.

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Ključevšek, D., Riccabona, M., Ording Müller, LS. et al. Intracavitary contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in children: review with procedural recommendations and clinical applications from the European Society of Paediatric Radiology abdominal imaging task force. Pediatr Radiol 50, 596–606 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-019-04611-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-019-04611-1

Keywords

  • Children
  • Contrast agents
  • Contrast-enhanced
  • Intracavitary
  • Ultrasound