Diagnosis, treatment and outcome of hepatic venous outflow obstruction in paediatric liver transplantation: 24-year experience at a single centre
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Hepatic venous outflow obstruction after paediatric liver transplantation is an unusual but critical complication.
To review the incidence, diagnosis and therapeutic modalities of hepatic venous outflow obstruction from a large national liver transplant unit.
Materials and methods
During the period from October 1992 to March 2016, 917 liver transplant procedures were performed with all types of grafts in 792 children. Transplants suspected to have early or delayed venous outflow obstruction were confirmed by percutaneous venography or surgical revision findings. Therapeutic intervention, recurrence and outcome were evaluated.
Twenty-six of 792 children (3.3%) experienced post-transplant hepatic venous outflow obstruction. These patients had been diagnosed from 1 day to 8.75 years after transplantation. Six occurred during the early post-transplant period; in three of them, the graft was lost. Seventeen patients were initially treated by balloon angioplasty with success; 11 of these experienced recurrences. Four stents were implanted; one was complicated by definitive occlusion. Three of the five surgical revisions were successful. The initial stenosis involved the inferior vena cava in 10 grafts, in isolation or associated with hepatic vein involvement. Mean follow-up was 79 months after transplantation. Eight grafts were lost.
Acute postoperative hepatic venous outflow obstruction was associated with poor prognosis. Diagnostic venography should be performed if there is any suspicion of venous outflow obstruction, even if first-line examinations are normal. Stenosis frequently involved the inferior vena cava. Angioplasty was a safe and efficient treatment for venous outflow obstruction despite frequent recurrence.
KeywordsBudd-Chiari syndrome Computed tomography Children Hepatic venous outflow obstruction Liver transplantation Ultrasound Vascular complications Venography Venous angioplasty
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
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