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A validated clinical MRI injury scoring system in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

Abstract

Background

Deep nuclear gray matter injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We previously published a qualitative MRI injury scoring system utilizing serial T1-weighted, T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), weighted for deep nuclear gray matter injury.

Objectives

To establish the validity of the MRI scoring system with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18-24 months.

Materials and methods

MRI scans from neonates with moderate to severe HIE treated with therapeutic hypothermia were evaluated. Signal abnormality was scored on T1-weighted, T2-weighted and DWI sequences and assessed using an established system in five regions: (a) subcortical: caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen, thalamus and the posterior limb of the internal capsule; (b) white matter; (c) cortex, (d) cerebellum and (e) brainstem. MRI injury was graded as none, mild, moderate or severe. Inter-rater reliability was tested on a subset of scans by two independent and blinded neuroradiologists. Surviving infants underwent the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III) at 18-24 months. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression.

Results

Fifty-seven eligible neonates underwent at least one MRI scan in the first 2 weeks of life. Mean postnatal age at scan 1 was 4±2 days in 50/57 (88%) neonates and 48/54 (89%) surviving infants underwent scan 2 at 10±2 days. In 54/57 (95%) survivors, higher MRI injury grades were significantly associated with worse outcomes in the cognitive, motor and language domains of the Bayley-III.

Conclusion

A qualitative MRI injury scoring system weighted for deep nuclear gray matter injury is a significant predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at 18–24 months in neonates with HIE.

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Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Anthony Barton (no conflicts of interest) for his efforts in coordinating the project and the infants and families for their generous assistance and dedication. In addition, we are grateful for the support from the Thrasher Foundation and the Washington University KL2 program.

Funding was provided by the Thrasher Foundation, the Washington University Institute of Clinical and Translational Sciences KL2 Training Program (NIH/NCATS KL2 TR000450-08), and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health under award number U54 HD087011 to the Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center at Washington University.

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Correspondence to Shamik B. Trivedi.

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Trivedi, S.B., Vesoulis, Z.A., Rao, R. et al. A validated clinical MRI injury scoring system in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Radiol 47, 1491–1499 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-017-3893-y

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Keywords

  • Brain
  • Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Neonates
  • Neurodevelopmental outcome
  • Scoring system