Imaging features of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis
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Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis is a rare, aggressive lymphatic disorder. The imaging and presenting features of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis can overlap with those of central conducting lymphatic anomaly and generalized lymphatic anomaly.
To analyze the imaging findings of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis disorder and highlight features most suggestive of this diagnosis.
Materials and methods
We retrospectively identified and characterized 20 children and young adults with histopathological diagnosis of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis and radiologic imaging referred to the vascular anomalies center between 1995 and 2015.
The median age at onset was 6.5 years (range 3 months to 27 years). The most common presenting features were respiratory compromise (dyspnea, cough, chest pain; 55.5%), swelling/mass (25%), bleeding (15%) and fracture (5%). The thoracic cavity was involved in all patients; all patients had mediastinal involvement followed by lung parenchymal disease (90%) and pleural (85%) and pericardial (50%) effusions. The most common extra-thoracic sites of disease were the retroperitoneum (80%), bone (60%), abdominal viscera (55%) and muscles (45%). There was characteristic enhancing and infiltrative soft-tissue thickening in the mediastinum and retroperitoneum extending along the lymphatic distribution.
Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis has overlapping imaging features with central conducting lymphatic anomaly and generalized lymphatic anomaly. Presence of mediastinal or retroperitoneal enhancing and infiltrative soft-tissue disease along the lymphatic distribution, hemorrhagic effusions and moderate thrombocytopenia (50–100,000/μl) should favor diagnosis of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis.
KeywordsChildren Computed tomography Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis Lymphatic malformation Magnetic resonance imaging Radiography Ultrasound
We are very grateful to David Zurakowski, PhD, MA, MS, Statistics, Director of Biostatistics at Boston Children’s Hospital, for his help in biostatistics.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
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