Skip to main content


Log in

Magnetic resonance urography in the pediatric population: a clinical perspective

  • Pediatric Body MRI
  • Published:
Pediatric Radiology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Diagnostic imaging in pediatric urology has traditionally relied upon multiple modalities based on availability, use of ionizing radiation, and invasiveness to evaluate urological anomalies. These modalities include ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography, fluoroscopy and radionuclide scintigraphy. Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) has become increasingly useful in depicting more detailed abdominal and pelvic anatomy, specifically in duplex collecting systems, ectopic ureter, ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, megaureter and congenital pelvic anomalies. Here we discuss the clinical role of MRU in the pediatric population and its future direction.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Ehammer T, Riccabona M, Maier E (2011) High resolution of MR for evaluation of lower urogenital tract malformations in infants and children: feasibility and preliminary experiences. Eur J Radiol 78:388–393

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Tekgül S, Nijman JM, Hoebeke P et al (2015) EAU guidelines on paediatric urology 2015: dilatation of the upper urinary tract. European Society for Paediatric Urology. Accessed 30 March 2015

  3. Payabvash S, Kajbafzadeh AM, Saeedi P et al (2008) Application of magnetic resonance urography in diagnosis of congenital urogenital anomalies in children. Pediatr Surg Int 24:979–986

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Wille S, von Knobloch R, Klose KJ et al (2003) Magnetic resonance urography in pediatric urology. Scand J Urol Nephrol 37:16–21

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Cerwinka WH, Grattan-Smith JD, Kirsh AJ (2008) Magnetic resonance urography in pediatric urology. J Pediatr Urol 4:74–83

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Dickerson EC, Dillman JR, Smith EA et al (2015) Pediatric MR urography: indications, techniques, and approach to review. Radiographics 35:1208–1230

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Darge K, Anupindi SA, Jaramillo D (2011) MR imaging of the abdomen and pelvis in infants, children and adolescents. Radiology 261:12–29

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Leyendecker JR, Gianini JW (2009) Magnetic resonance urography. Abdom Imaging 34:527–540

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Emad-Eldin S, Abdelaziz O, El-Daisty TA (2015) Diagnostic value of combined static-excretory MR urography in children with hydronephrosis. J Adv Res 6:145–153

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Rappaport BA, Suresh S, Hertz S et al (2015) Anesthetic neurotoxicity — clinical implications of animal models. N Engl J Med 372:796–797

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Knesplova L, Krestin GP (1998) Magnetic resonance in the assessment of renal function. Eur Radiol 8:201–211

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Nation EF (1944) Duplication of the kidney and ureter: a statistical study of 230 new cases. J Urol 51:456–465

    Google Scholar 

  13. Faure A, Merrot T, Sala Q et al (2014) Value of diagnosis imaging in the evaluation of the severity of histological lesions in duplex system. J Pediatr Urol 10:361–367

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Berrocal T, Lopez-Pereira P, Arjonilla A et al (2002) Anomalies of the distal ureter, bladder, and urethra in children: embryologic, radiologic, and pathologic features. Radiographics 22:1139–1164

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Arlen AM, Kirch AJ, Cuda SP et al (2014) Magnetic resonance urography for diagnosis of pediatric ureteral stricture. J Pediatr Urol 10:792–798

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Frank JA, Choyke PL, Austin HA et al (1991) Functional MR of the kidney. Magn Reson Med 22:319–323

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Adeb M, Darge K, Dillman JR et al (2013) Magnetic resonance urography in evaluation of duplicated renal collecting systems. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 21:717–730

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Stokland E, Jodal U, Sixt R et al (2007) Uncomplicated duplex kidney and DMSA scintigraphy in children with urinary tract infection. Pediatr Radiol 37:826–828

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Escala JM, Cadena Gonzalez Y, Lopez PJ et al (2008) Ectopic ureter in pediatrics. A change in the way of presentation. Arch Esp Urol 61:507–510

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Roy Choudhury S, Chadha R, Bagga D et al (2008) Spectrum of ectopic ureters in children. Pediatr Surg Int 24:819–823

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Figueroa VH, Chavhan GB, Oudjhane K et al (2013) Utility of MR urography in children suspected of having ectopic ureter. Pediatr Radiol 44:956–962

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Lipson JA, Coakley FV, Baskin LS et al (2008) Subtle renal duplication as an unrecognized cause of childhood incontinence: diagnosis by magnetic resonance urography. J Pediatr Urol 4:398–400

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Riccabona M, Avni FE, Dacher JN et al (2010) ESPR uroradiology task force and ESUR pediatric working group: imaging and procedural recommendations in pediatric uroradiology, part III. Minutes of the ESPR uroradiology task force minisymposium on intravenous urography, uro-CT and MR-urography in childhood. Pediatr Radiol 40:1315–1320

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Koyle MA, Ehrlich RM (1988) Management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in neonate. Urology 31:496–498

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Little SB, Jones RA, Grattan-Smith JD (2008) Evaluation of UPJ obstruction before and after pyeloplasty using MR urography. Pediatr Radiol 38:S106–S124

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. McDaniel BB, Jones RA, Scherz H et al (2005) Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR urography in the evaluation of pediatric hydronephrosis: part 2, anatomic and functional assessment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. AJR Am J Roentgenol 186:1608–1614

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Jaramillo D, Lebowitz RL, Hendren WH (1990) The cloacal malformation: radiologic findings and imaging recommendations. Radiology 177:441–448

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Adams ME, Hiorns MP, Wilcox DT (1996) Combining MDCT, micturating cystography, and excretory urography for 3D imaging of cloacal malformation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 187:1034–1035

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Baughman SM, Richardson RR, Podberesky DJ et al (2007) 3-dimensional magnetic resonance genitography: a different look at cloacal malformations. J Urol 178:1675–1679

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Podberesky DJ, Towbin AJ, Eltomey MA et al (2013) Magnetic resonance imaging of anorectal malformations. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 21:791–812

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Jarboe MD, Teitelbaum DH, Dillman JR (2012) Combined 3D rotational fluoroscopic-MRI cloacagram procedure defines luminal and extraluminal pelvic anatomy prior to surgical reconstruction of cloacal and other complex pelvic malformations. Pediatr Surg Int 28:757–763

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Sato Y, Pringle KC, Bergman RA et al (1988) Congenital anorectal anomalies: MR imaging. Radiology 168:157–162

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


The author group would like to express special gratitude to Dr. Govind Chavhan, staff pediatric radiologist at The Hospital for Sick Children and assistant professor of Medical Imaging at University of Toronto, for helping us with the accuracy of the radiologic terms in our manuscript and for providing good-quality MRU images.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Walid A. Farhat.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors have no financial interests, investigational or off-label uses to disclose.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chua, M.E., Ming, J.M. & Farhat, W.A. Magnetic resonance urography in the pediatric population: a clinical perspective. Pediatr Radiol 46, 791–795 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: