Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 43, Issue 9, pp 1108–1116 | Cite as

Effective dose estimation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal examinations using an anthropomorphic phantom set and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology

  • Brent Emigh
  • Christopher L. Gordon
  • Bairbre L. Connolly
  • Michelle Falkiner
  • Karen E. Thomas
Original Article

Abstract

Background

There is a need for updated radiation dose estimates in pediatric fluoroscopy given the routine use of new dose-saving technologies and increased radiation safety awareness in pediatric imaging.

Objective

To estimate effective doses for standardized pediatric upper gastrointestinal (UGI) examinations at our institute using direct dose measurement, as well as provide dose-area product (DAP) to effective dose conversion factors to be used for the estimation of UGI effective doses for boys and girls up to 10 years of age at other centers.

Materials and methods

Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were placed within four anthropomorphic phantoms representing children ≤10 years of age and exposed to mock UGI examinations using exposures much greater than used clinically to minimize measurement error. Measured effective dose was calculated using ICRP 103 weights and scaled to our institution’s standardized clinical UGI (3.6-min fluoroscopy, four spot exposures and four examination beam projections) as determined from patient logs. Results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations and related to fluoroscope-displayed DAP.

Results

Measured effective doses for standardized pediatric UGI examinations in our institute ranged from 0.35 to 0.79 mSv in girls and were 3–8% lower for boys. Simulation-derived and measured effective doses were in agreement (percentage differences <19%, T > 0.18). DAP-to-effective dose conversion factors ranged from 6.5 ×10−4 mSv per Gy-cm2 to 4.3 × 10−3 mSv per Gy-cm2 for girls and were similarly lower for boys.

Conclusion

Using modern fluoroscopy equipment, the effective dose associated with the UGI examination in children ≤10 years at our institute is < 1 mSv. Estimations of effective dose associated with pediatric UGI examinations can be made for children up to the age of 10 using the DAP-normalized conversion factors provided in this study. These estimates can be further refined to reflect individual hospital examination protocols through the use of direct organ dose measurement using MOSFETs, which were shown to agree with Monte Carlo simulated doses.

Keywords

Upper gastrointestinal examination Barium meal Anthropomorphic phantom MOSFET Children 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brent Emigh
    • 1
  • Christopher L. Gordon
    • 2
  • Bairbre L. Connolly
    • 3
  • Michelle Falkiner
    • 2
  • Karen E. Thomas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic ImagingThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Image-Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic ImagingThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

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