Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 54–63 | Cite as

Voiding urosonography with US contrast agents for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in children

II. Comparison with radiological examinations
Review

Abstract

Studies comparing voiding urosonography (VUS) with voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and direct radionuclide cystography (DRNC) were analyzed and detailed tables demonstrating the diagnostic values and grading of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) are presented. Comparative studies of DRNC were too few and did not allow definite conclusions. Using VCUG as the reference, the results of VUS were as follows: sensitivity 57–100%, specificity 85–100%, positive/negative predictive values 58–100%/87–100%, respectively, and diagnostic accuracy 78–96%. With the exception of two studies the diagnostic accuracy reported was 90% and above. In 19% of pelviureteric units (PUUs) the diagnosis was made only by VUS and in 10% only by VCUG. Thus in 9% of PUUs more refluxes were detected using VUS. In 73.6% the reflux grades were concordant in VUS and VCUG. Reflux grade was found to be higher with VUS than with VCUG in 19.6% of PUUs. In 71.2% of PUUs with grade I reflux on VCUG, the reflux was found to be grade II and higher on VUS. The common selection criteria for VUS as the primary examination for VUR currently include (a) follow-up studies, (b) first examination for VUR in girls, and (c) screening high-risk patients.

Keywords

Direct radionuclide cystography Ultrasound contrast agent Voiding cystourethrography Vesicoureteric reflux Voiding urosonography 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric RadiologyUniversity Hospital WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany

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