Device closure has become the preferred procedure for treating oval fossa defects in the last two decades. More recently, transcatheter sinus venosus defect (SVD) closure has emerged as an alternative to surgery. Transcatheter stenting aims to overcome potential late surgical complications such as stenosis of the superior vena cava (SVC) and right upper pulmonary vein (RUPV), as well as sinus node dysfunction. Balloon interrogation of the cavoatrial junction is able to identify patients who are suitable candidates for nonsurgical closure. Successful closure is possible when the balloon seals the SVD and redirects the RUPV towards the left atrium. Oval fossa (secundum) defects can coexist in approximately 9–16% of patients with SVD. Among a group of 80 patients who underwent transcatheter closure of SVD, five adult patients aged between 22 and 52 years also required device closure of an associated oval fossa defect. The procedure involved simultaneous balloon interrogation of both the SVD and oval fossa defect, with continuous monitoring of the RUPV using bilateral femoral venous sheaths. Covered stent exclusion of the SVD was performed with concurrent device closure of the oval fossa defect using 12–36 mm atrial septal occluders. During the procedure, two patients required protective balloon inflation in the RUPV while expanding the covered stent. In one patient, a higher small accessory RUPV was intentionally left to drain into the SVC through the struts of a bare stent anchoring the covered stent in the upper SVC. In another patient, a second overlapping covered stent was used to address residual flows from a fabric tear that became apparent after balloon deflation. There were no vascular complications and only one patient exhibited an insignificant 6 mm residual flow from the caudal edge of the SVD during a follow-up of 5 to 72 months. In conclusion, the closure of both SVD and associated oval fossa defects can be successfully performed in a single procedure, with comparable procedural times and favourable mid-term outcomes.
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We thank Prof Eric Rosenthal, Evelina London Children’s Hospital for improving the linguistic quality of the final approved manuscript.
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Thejaswi, P., Sagar, P. & Sivakumar, K. Simultaneous Transcatheter Closure of Coexistent Superior Sinus Venosus Defects and Oval Fossa Defects. Pediatr Cardiol 44, 1591–1598 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00246-023-03235-5