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The Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies of the Airway or Lung in Infants with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and Differences in Midterm Outcomes: A National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative Registry Analysis

Abstract

Infants with single ventricle physiology and congenital anomalies of the airway and/or lung are potentially poor candidates for staged palliation. The prevalence and midterm outcomes for patients with anomalies of the airway or lung with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are unknown. We performed an analysis of data in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome from the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative registry. The prevalence of congenital anomalies of the airway or lung in the registry was determined. Clinical characteristics and midterm outcomes were compared between infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with and without anomalies of the airway or lung. Fifty-seven (2.3%) of 2467 infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome enrolled in the registry had congenital airway or lung anomalies. Infants congenital anomalies of the airway or lung had significantly lower transplant-free survival at 1 year (49.5 vs 77.2%, p < 0.001). Infants with airway or lung anomalies had longer combined hospital length of stay for stage 1 and stage 2 palliation (102 vs 65.1 days, p < 0.001) and underwent more major procedures (2.04 vs 0.93 procedures, p < 0.001) than those without. There was no difference in the number of interstage readmissions (1.85 vs 1.89, p = 0.87) or need for non-oral feeding supplementation (71.4 vs 54.5%, p = 0.12) between groups. Infants enrolled in the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative registry with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and anomalies of the airway or lung have increased morbidity and mortality at 1 year compared to those with hypoplastic left heart syndrome alone.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the members of the Scientific Review Committee from the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative for their advice and support of this study.

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This research received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

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Correspondence to Raj Sahulee.

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Sahulee, R., Singh, R.K. & Pasternack, D.M. The Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies of the Airway or Lung in Infants with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and Differences in Midterm Outcomes: A National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative Registry Analysis. Pediatr Cardiol (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00246-022-02949-2

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Keywords

  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
  • Congenital anomalies
  • Cardiology
  • National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative