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The Use of Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO) Wires for Perforation of Atretic Pulmonary Valve; Two Centers Experience

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Pulmonary valve atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA-IVS) can be treated either surgically or transcatheterly for eligible patients. Perforation of pulmonary valves using chronic total occlusion (CTO) guidewires has been reported as an alternative to radiofrequency (RF) perforation. We sought to report our experience with CTO guidewires for perforation of atretic pulmonary valves and subsequent balloon dilatation (with or without patent ductus arteriosus stenting) in patients with PA-IVS from two centers. A retrospective study was carried out on PA-IVS patients who underwent intervention between March 2014 and September 2019, in which CTO guidewire was employed for pulmonary valve perforation. A total of 26 patients were identified. The median age and weight of the patients were 5.2 days (range 1–21 days) and 3.1 kg (range 2.2–3.8 kg), respectively. All patients were situs solitus, except one patient with left atrial isomerism. The right ventricle (RV) morphology was bipartite in 22/26 patients and tripartite in 4/26 patients. Before the procedure, the mean saturation was 76% (range 70–86%) while the patients were under prostaglandin infusion. The pulmonary valve perforation attempt was performed with the Asahi Conquest Pro 9 CTO wire (n = 6) or Asahi Pro 12 CTO wire (n = 18) and/or Asahi Miracle CTO wire (n = 2). The procedure was successful in 20/26 (77%) patients using CTO wires. We analyzed the efficiency of CTO wire based on the subtypes: Conquest Pro 9 in 6/6 (100%) patients, Conquest Pro 12 in 12/18 (67%) patients, and Miracle in 2/2 (100%) patients. Before CTO wire usage in 3 patients, radiofrequency (RF) perforation was unsuccessful. Among these 3 patients, pulmonary valve perforation was successful in 2 patients with CTO wire; hence, in the remaining patient, perforation was also unsuccessful with CTO wire. After CTO wire perforation was unsuccessful in 6 patients, RF perforation was attempted in 3 patients (2 successful attempts and 1 unsuccessful attempts), and one patient as referred to surgery. Desaturation was persistent in 19 cases, which necessitated ductus arteriosus stenting. Early procedural complication was observed in 3/26 (11%) patients. Two of these patients had vascular complications due to the sheath, which was treated with heparin infusion and streptokinase, and the remaining patient had sudden bradycardia and cardiac arrest during the procedure and did not respond to cardiac resuscitation. CTO wires should be keep in mind for atretic pulmonary valve perforation as a first choice or when RF perforation is unsuccessful.

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Correspondence to Hacer Kamalı.

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Kamalı, H., Tanıdır, İ.C., Erdem, A. et al. The Use of Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO) Wires for Perforation of Atretic Pulmonary Valve; Two Centers Experience. Pediatr Cardiol 42, 1041–1048 (2021).

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