Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) is a rare congenital heart defect (CHD) often associated with genetic syndromes, most commonly Down syndrome (DS). Over the last four decades, surgical repair has increased survival and improved quality of life in these patients. The prevalence of bradyarrhythmias namely, atrioventricular block (AVB) and sinus node dysfunction (SND) in AVSD is partially known. 522 cases with both partial and complete AVSD (38.7% with DS), undergoing intracardiac repair from 1982 to 2016 at our institution, were reviewed from our system database. 38 (7.3%) patients received permanent PM implantation for AVB (early or late) or SND. On one hand, AVB requiring PM was found in 26 (4.98%). This was further subdivided into early-onset 14 (2.6%) and late-onset AVB 12 (2.2%) (median 4 [IQR 1–7] years). On the other hand, 12 (2.3%) experienced late SND requiring PM (median 11 [IQR 3.5–15.2] years). Early and late AVB were independent from the type of AVSD (partial or complete), whereas the late SND was remarkably observed in complete AVSD compared to partial AVSD (p = 0.017). We classified the cohort into two main categories: DS (202, 38.7%) and non-DS (320, 61.3%). At Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, DS was significantly associated with late-onset bradyarrhythmias (p = 0.024). At Cox regression analysis, we identified DS as an independent predictor of PM implantation (HR 2.17). In conclusion, about 7% of repaired AVSD patients need PM implantation during follow-up. There are no differences in early and late AVB occurrence according to the type of AVSD. There is a higher incidence of late SND in repaired complete AVSD, with a later timing onset in patients with associated DS. Moreover, DS seems to be an independent predictor of PM implantation.
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The authors would like to thank Dr. Elisa Del Vecchio for her valuable collaboration in the editorial revision.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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