Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 39, Issue 6, pp 1129–1133 | Cite as

Antibiotic Prophylaxis Practices in Pediatric Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Procedures: A Survey of the Pediatric And Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES)

  • Spenser Y. Chen
  • Scott R. Ceresnak
  • Kara S. Motonaga
  • Anthony Trela
  • Debra Hanisch
  • Anne M. Dubin
Original Article


Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are associated with significant morbidity in the pediatric device population, with a tenfold higher risk of infection in children compared to adults. The 2010 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend a single dose of systemic antibiotic (ABX) prophylaxis prior to CIED implantation and no post-operative (OP) ABX. However, there is limited data regarding adherence to this recommendation among the pediatric community. To assess current clinical practices for CIED ABX prophylaxis in pediatrics; whether the AHA guidelines are being followed; and if not, the reasons for non-adherence. An anonymous web-based survey was sent to physician members of the Pediatric And Congenital Electrophysiology Society regarding ABX prophylaxis for new CIED implants and reoperations. 75 (25%) members responded. Only 7% of respondents follow the 2010 AHA guidelines. While all respondents give pre-OP IV ABX, 64% routinely treat patients with 24-h post-OP IV ABX with additional oral or IV therapy. 69% of respondents are cognizant of the guidelines but 88% of those cognizant do not follow the guidelines for a variety of reasons including lack of data and different substrate (pediatric patients). 79% stated that pediatric-specific data would be required for them to change their practice and follow the published guidelines. The majority of pediatric EP physicians who responded to this survey do not follow the current AHA guidelines on ABX prophylaxis and administer post-OP ABX. Most pediatric EP physicians believe that the increased risk of infection in children merits additional ABX.


Pediatric Implantable device Antibiotics Prophylaxis 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Kara S. Motonaga has received educational fellowship support from Medtronic (20K) & Abbott (20K). Anne M. Dubin has received educational fellowship support from Medtronic (20K) & Abbott (20K). The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human and Animal Participants

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Spenser Y. Chen
    • 1
  • Scott R. Ceresnak
    • 1
  • Kara S. Motonaga
    • 1
  • Anthony Trela
    • 1
  • Debra Hanisch
    • 1
  • Anne M. Dubin
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric CardiologyStanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA

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