Percutaneous Ventricular Septal Defect Closure in Patients Under 1 Year of Age
Untreated ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an important cause of congestive heart failure in early infancy. Growth is impaired in this population, and surgical closure is challenging because of congestion in the lungs, making infants prone to respiratory infection, and because of their poor nutritional status. The aim of this study is to share our experience with percutaneous VSD closure in patients under 1 year of age. Patients with hemodynamically significant left-to-right shunt, less than 1 year of age, and with VSD diameter ≤ 6 mm were retrospectively included in the study between December 2014 and January 2017. The median length of follow-up was 8.5 (4–14.2) months. Twelve patients from 2 to 12 months of age, with a median weight of 6.75 (5.4–8) kg, were included. The mean VSD diameter as measured by angiography from the left ventricle side was 4.7 ± 0.25 mm, and from the right ventricle side was 3.4 ± 1.1 mm. All were of a perimembranous type except three, which were muscular. All defects were closed with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (ADO II) or the ADO II-additional size. The mean fluoroscopy duration and total radiation dose were 22.6 ± 18.7 min and 1674 ± 851 cGy/min, respectively. No aortic regurgitation associated with device closure was seen in any of the patients. Complete atrioventricular block occurred in one patient 6 months after the procedure, and was treated with a permanent pacemaker. VSD closure is challenging, regardless of whether a surgical or percutaneous procedure is used. The risks are higher for children younger than 1 year with low body weight. Percutaneous closure, which carries similar risks but is less invasive than surgery, may be the preferred alternative in early infancy.
KeywordsVentricular septal defect Percutaneous Infant Closure
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.
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