Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 1010–1015 | Cite as

Peripheral Endothelial Function After Arterial Switch Operation for D-looped Transposition of the Great Arteries

  • Heather Y. Sun
  • Katie Jo Stauffer
  • Susan E. Nourse
  • Chau Vu
  • Elif Seda Selamet Tierney
Original Article


Coronary artery re-implantation during arterial switch operation in patients with D-looped transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) can alter coronary arterial flow and increase shear stress, leading to local endothelial dysfunction, although prior studies have conflicting results. Endothelial pulse amplitude testing can predict coronary endothelial dysfunction by peripheral arterial testing. This study tested if, compared to healthy controls, patients with D-TGA after arterial switch operation had peripheral endothelial dysfunction. Patient inclusion criteria were (1) D-TGA after neonatal arterial switch operation; (2) age 9–29 years; (3) absence of known cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, vascular disease, recurrent vasovagal syncope, and coronary artery disease; and (4) ability to comply with overnight fasting. Exclusion criteria included (1) body mass index ≥85th percentile, (2) use of medications affecting vascular tone, or (3) acute illness. We assessed endothelial function by endothelial pulse amplitude testing and compared the results to our previously published data in healthy controls (n = 57). We tested 20 D-TGA patients (16.4 ± 4.8 years old) who have undergone arterial switch operation at a median age of 5 days (0–61 days). Endothelial pulse amplitude testing indices were similar between patients with D-TGA and controls (1.78 ± 0.61 vs. 1.73 ± 0.54, p = 0.73).In our study population of children and young adults, there was no evidence of peripheral endothelial dysfunction in patients with D-TGA who have undergone arterial switch operation. Our results support the theory that coronary arterial wall thickening and abnormal vasodilation reported in these patients is a localized phenomenon and not reflective of overall atherosclerotic burden.


Endothelial function Arterial switch operation Vascular health Coronary arteries 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

No conflicts of interest to disclose.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather Y. Sun
    • 1
  • Katie Jo Stauffer
    • 2
  • Susan E. Nourse
    • 2
  • Chau Vu
    • 2
  • Elif Seda Selamet Tierney
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Rady Children’s HospitalUniversity of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Lucile Packard Children’s HospitalStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA

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