Advertisement

Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 1–29 | Cite as

The Pediatric Cardiology Pharmacopeia: 2013 Update

  • Paul Nicholas SeverinEmail author
  • Sawsan Awad
  • Beth Shields
  • Joan Hoffman
  • William Bonney
  • Edmundo Cortez
  • Rani Ganesan
  • Aloka Patel
  • Steve Barnes
  • Sean Barnes
  • Shada Al-Anani
  • Umang Gupta
  • Yolandee Bell Cheddar
  • Ismael E. Gonzalez
  • Kiran Mallula
  • Hani Ghawi
  • Suhaib Kazmouz
  • Salwa Gendi
  • Ra-id Abdulla
Review Article

Abstract

The use of medications plays a pivotal role in the management of children with heart diseases. Most children with increased pulmonary blood flow require chronic use of anticongestive heart failure medications until more definitive interventional or surgical procedures are performed. The use of such medications, particularly inotropic agents and diuretics, is even more amplified during the postoperative period. Currently, children are undergoing surgical intervention at an ever younger age with excellent results aided by advanced anesthetic and postoperative care. The most significant of these advanced measures includes invasive and noninvasive monitoring as well as a wide array of pharmacologic agents. This review update provides a medication guide for medical practitioners involved in care of children with heart diseases.

Keywords

Congestive heart failure Pediatric cardiology Pharmacologic agents Pharmacopeia Inotropes Vasodilators Antiarrhythmic Fetal drugs Anticoagulants Diuretics 

References

  1. 1.
    Abdulla R, Young S, Barnes S (1997) The pediatric cardiology pharmacopoeia. Pediatr Cardiol 18:162–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alten JA, Benner K, Green K et al (2009) Pediatric off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa. Pediatrics 123:1066–1072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alten JA, Benner K, Green K, Toole B, Tofil NM, Winkler MK (2009) Pediatric off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa. Pediatrics 123(3):1066–1072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Heart Association (2010) Pediatric advanced life support drugs and electrical therapy. In: Hazinski MF (ed) Handbook of emergency cardiovascular care for healthcare providers, AHA, Dallas, pp 72–101Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Heart Association (2006) Pharmacology. In: Ralston M (ed) Pediatric advanced life support provider manual, AHA, Dallas, pp 221–255Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aranda JV, Thomas R (2005) Intravenous ibuprofen for preterm newborns. NeoReviews 6:e516–e522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Artman M (2001) Pharmacologic therapy. In: Allen HD, Gutgesell HP, Clark EB, Driscoll DJ (eds) Moss and Adams’ heart disease in infants, children, and adolescents, 6th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, Philadelphia, pp 333–349Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bach DS, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2009) Perspectives on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 53:1852–1854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barnes S, Shields B, Bonney W, Hardin J, Abdulla R (2004) The pediatric cardiology pharmacopoeia. Pediatr Cardiol 25:623–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barst RJ, Rubin LJ, Long WA et al (1996) A comparison of continuous intravenous epoprostenol (prostacylin) with conventional therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 334:296–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barst RJ, Maislin G, Fishman A (1999) Vasodilator therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension in children. Circulation 99:1197–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barst RJ, Ivy D, Gaitan G et al (2012) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of oral sildenafil citrate in treatment-naive children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circulation 125:324–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beghetti M, Habre W, Friedli B et al (1995) Continuous use of low-dose inhaled nitric oxide for treatment of severe pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery in pediatric patients. Br Heart J 73:65–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Chatterjee K et al (2006) ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease). J Am Coll Cardiol 48:e1–e148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boshkov LK, Kirby A, Shen I, Ungerleider RM (2006) Recognition and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass patients. Ann Thorac Surg 81:S2355–S2359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    British Cardiac Society Guidelines and Medical Practice Committee (2001) Recommendations on the management of pulmonary hypertension in clinical practice. Heart 86:i1–i13Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bronicki RA, Checchia PA (2006) Vasoactive agents. In: Slonim AD, Pollack MM (eds) Pediatric critical care medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, Philadelphia, pp 664–669Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buck ML (2004) Octreotide for the management of chylothorax in infants and children. Pediatr Pharmacother 10:1–4Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buck M (2006) Use of aminocaproic acid in children undergoing cardiac surgery or ECMO. Pediatr Pharmacother 12:1–5Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buyon JP, Hiebert R, Copel J, Craft J, Friedman D, Katholi M et al (1998) Autoimmune-associated congenital heart block: mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rates obtained from a national neonatal lupus registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 31:1658–1666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cetta F, Graham LC, Wrona LL et al (2004) Argatroban use during pediatric interventional cardiac catheterization. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 61:147–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chan V, Tse TF, Wong V (1978) Transfer of digoxin across the placenta and into breast milk. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 85:605–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chan SY, Lau W, Wong WH et al (2006) Chylothorax in children after congenital heart surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 82:1650–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chauhan S, Bisoi A, Kumar N et al (2004) Dose comparison of tranexamic acid in pediatric cardiac surgery. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 12:121–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cheung Y, Leung MP, Yip M (2001) Octreotide for treatment of postoperative chylothorax. J Pediatr 139:157–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ (2003) The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention. JAMA 289:2560–2571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Choong K, Kissoon N (2008) Vasopressin in pediatric shock and cardiac arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med 9:372–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clavecilla SQ, De Marco T (2003) New insights into the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Formulary 38:150–167Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cuneo BF, Strasburger JF (2000) Management strategy for fetal tachycardia. Obstet Gynecol 96:575–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cuneo BF, Zhao H, Strasburger JF, Ovadia M, Huhta JC, Wakai RT (2007) Atrial and ventricular rate response and patterns of heart rate acceleration during maternal-fetal terbutaline treatment of fetal complete heart block. Am J Cardiol 100:661–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dajani AS, Taubert KA, Wilson W et al (1997) Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: recommendations by the American Heart Association. JAMA 277:1794–1801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    FDA Drug safety communication (2012) FDA recommends against use of Revatio in children with pulmonary hypertension. Retrieved 2012 at http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm317123.htm
  33. 33.
    Flynn JT, Mottes TA, Brophy PD, Kershaw DB, Smoyer WE, Bunchman TE (2001) Intravenous nicardipine for treatment of severe hypertension in children. J Pediatr 139:38–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Friedman DM, Kim MY, Copel JA, Llanos C, Davis C, Buyon JP (2009) Prospective evaluation of fetuses with autoimmune-associated congenital heart block followed in the PR Interval and Dexamethasone Evaluation (PRIDE) Study. Am J Cardiol 103:1102–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Friedman DM, Llanos C, Izmirly PM et al (2010) Evaluation of fetuses in a study of intravenous immunoglobulin as preventive therapy for congenital heart block: results of a multicenter, prospective, open-label clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 62:1138–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Frohn-Mulder IM, Stewart PA, Witsenburg M, Den Hollander NS, Wladimiroff JW, Hess J (1995) The efficacy of flecainide versus digoxin in the management of fetal supraventricular tachycardia. Prenat Diagn 15:1297–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Geller RJ, Barthold C, Saiers JA, Hall HA (2006) Pediatric cyanide poisoning: causes, manifestations, management, and unmet needs. Pediatrics 118:2146–2158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goldberg DJ, French B, ΜBride MG et al (2011) Impact of oral sildenafil on exercise performance in children and young adults after the fontan operation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Circulation 123:1185–1193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gunn VL, Nechyba C (2000) The Harriet Lane handbook, 16th edn. Mosby-Year Book, St Louis, pp 575–889Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hansmann M, Gembruch U, Bald R, Manz M, Redel DA (1991) Fetal tachyarrhythmias: transplacental and direct fetal treatment of the fetus: a report of 60 cases. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1:162–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haraldsson A, Kieler-Jensen N, Richsten S (1996) Inhaled prostacyclin for treatment of pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery or heart transplantation: a pharmacodynamic study. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 10:864–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Haraldsson A, Kieler-Jensen N, Nathorst-Westfelt U, Bergh C, Richsten S (1998) Comparison of inhaled nitric oxide and inhaled aerosolized prostacyclin in the evaluation of heart transplant candidates with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Chest 114:780–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Haraldsson SA, Kieler-Jensen N, Ricksten SE (2001) The additive pulmonary vasodilatory effects of inhaled prostacylin and inhaled milrinone in postcardiac surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension. Anesth Analg 93:1439–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hegenbarth MA, Committee on Drugs (2008) Preparing for pediatric emergencies: drugs to consider. Pediatrics 121:433–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hoeper MM, Schwarze M, Ehlerding S (2000) Long-term treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension with aerosolized iloprost, a prostacyclin analogue. N Engl J Med 342:1866–1870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Horstkotte D, Piper C (2009) Guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis revised: a critical appraisal of the AHA recommendations and call for an individual approach. J Heart Valve Dis 18:309–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hsu B, Brazelton T (2009) Off-label medication use in an academic hospital pediatric critical care unit. Wincosin Med J 108:343–348Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hursting M, Dubb J, Verme-Gibboney C (2006) Argatroban anticoagulation in pediatric patients: a literature analysis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 281:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hutchon DJ (1982) Management of severe fetal bradycardia with ritodrine. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 89:671–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jaeggi ET, Fouron JC, Silverman ED, Ryan G, Smallhorn J, Hornberger LK (2004) Transplacental treatment improves the outcome of prenatally diagnosed complete atrioventricular block without structural heart disease. Circulation 110:1542–1548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Julkunen H, Eronen M (2001) The rate of recurrence of isolated congenital heart block: a population-based study. Arthritis Rheum 44:487–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kelly L, Porta N, Goodman D, Carroll C, Steinhorn R (2002) Inhaled prostacyclin for term infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension refractory to inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr 141:830–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Li J, Yow E, Berezny KY (2008) Dosing of clopidogrel for platelet inhibition in infants and young children. Circulation 118:553–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lowson SM (2002) Inhaled alternatives to nitric oxide. Anesthesiology 96:1504–1513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lui HK, Lee G, Dietrich P et al (1982) Flecainide induced QT prolongation and ventricular tachycardia. Am Heart J 103:567–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    MacNeil DJ (1997) The side effect profile of class III drug antiarrhythmic drugs: focus on d, l-sotalol. Am J Cardiol 80:90G–98GPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mangione R, Guyon F, Vergnaud A, Jimenez M, Saura R, Horovitz J (1999) Successful treatment of refractory supraventricular tachycardia by repeat intravascular injection of amiodarone in a fetus with hydrops. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 86:105–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Matsubara S, Morimatsu Y, Shiraishi H, Kuwata T, Ohkuchi A, Izumi A, Takeda S, Suzuki M (2008) Fetus with heart failure due to congenital atrioventricular block treated by maternally administered ritodrine. Arch Gynecol Obstet 278:85–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Maxwell DJ, Crawford DC, Curry PVM et al (1988) Obstetric importance, diagnosis, and management of fetal tachycardias. BMJ 297:107–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mertens L, Eyskens B, Boshoff D (2008) Safety and efficacy of clopidogrel in children with heart disease. J Pediatr 153:61–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mikhail G, Gibbs S, Richardson G, Wright G, Khaghani A, Banner N (1997) An evaluation of nebulized prostacyclin in patients with primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. Eur Heart J 18:1499–1504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Miller OI, Tang SF, Keech A et al (2000) Inhaled nitric oxide and prevention of pulmonary hypertension after congenital heart surgery: a randomized double-blind study. Lancet 356:1449–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Monagle P, Michelson AD, Bovill E, Andrew M (2001) Antithrombotic therapy in children. Chest 119:344S–370SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Munoz R et al (2008) Handbook of pediatric cardiovascular drugs. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Newall F, Johnston L, Ignjatovic V et al (2009) Unfractionated heparin therapy in infants and children. Pediatrics 123:e510–e518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nishimura RA, Carabello BA, Faxon DP et al (2008) ACC/AHA 2008 guideline update on valvular heart disease: focused update on infective endocarditis: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 52:676–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Noel N, Naheed Z (2012) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: role of current recommendations by the American Heart Association for infective endocarditis. Pediatr Cardiol. doi: 10.1007/s00246-012-0324-6
  68. 68.
    Odetola FO, Bhatt-Mehta V, Zahraa J, Moler FW, Custer JR (2002) Cisatracurium infusion for neuromuscular blockade in the pediatric intensive care unit: a dose-finding study. Pediatr Crit Care Med 3:250–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Oen EM, Doan KA, Knoderer CA, Knoderer HM (2009) Recombinant factor VIIa for bleeding in nonhemophiliac pediatric patients. J Pediatr Pharmacol 14:38–47Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Olschewski H, Walmrath D, Schermuly R et al (1996) Aerosolized prostacylin and iloprost in severe pulmonary hypertension. Ann Int Med 124:820–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Oudijk MA, Michon MM, Kleinman CS, Kapusta L, Stoutenbeek P, Visser GH, Meijboom EJ (2000) Sotalol in the treatment of fetal dysrhythmias. Circulation 101:2721–2726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Oudijk MA, Ruskamp JM, Ambachtsheer BE, Ververs TF, Stoutenbeek P, Visser GH, Meijboom EJ (2002) Drug treatment of fetal tachycardias. Pediatr Drugs 4:49–63Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Oudijk MA, Ruskamp JM, Ververs FFT, Ambachtsheer EB, Stoutenbeek P, Visser GH, Meijboom EJ (2003) Treatment of fetal tachycardia with sotalol: transplacental pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. J Am Coll Cardiol 42:765–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rayapudi S, Torres A, Deshpande GG et al (2008) Bivalirudin for anticoagulation in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer 5:798–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rogers Μ, Willerson JT, Goldblatt A et al (1972) Serum digoxin concentrations in the human fetus, neonate, and infant. N Engl J Med 16:1010–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Solina A, Papp D, Ginsberg S, Krause T, Grubb W et al (2000) A comparison of inhaled nitric oxide and milrinone for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in adult cardiac surgery patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 14:12–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Strasburger JF, Cuneo BF, Michon MM, Gotteiner NL, Deal BJ, ΜGregor SN, Oudijk MA et al (2004) Amiodarone therapy for drug-refractory fetal tachycardia. Circulation 109:375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Susil G (2009) Emergecny management. In: Custer JW, Rau RE (eds) The Harriet Lane handbook, 18th edn. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 3–17Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Taketomo CK, Hodding JH, Kraus DM (2008–2009) Pediatric dosage handbook (replaces older version), 15th edn. Lexi-Comp. Inc, Hudson, pp 28–1816Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Taubert KA, Gewitz MH (2008) Infective endocarditis. In: Hugh DA, David JD, Robert ES, Timothy FF (eds) Moss and Adams’ heart disease in infants, children, and adolescents, vol 2, 7th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1299–1312Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Van den Heuvel F, Bink-Boelkens MT, du Marchie Sarvaas GJ, Berger RM (2008) Drug management of fetal tachyarrhythmias: are we ready for a systematic and evidence-based approach? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 31(Suppl 1):S54–S57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    vanOvermeire B, Smets K, Lecoutere D et al (2000) A comparison of ibuprofen and indomethacin for closure of patent ductus arteriosus. N Engl J Med 343:674–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Vintzileos AM, Campbell WA, Soberman SM et al (1985) Fetal atrial flutter and xlinked dominant vitamin D-resistent rickets. Obstet Gynecol 65(3 Suppl.):39S–44SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M et al (2007) Prevention of infective endocarditis. Guidelines from the American Heart Association. A guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation 16:1736–1754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kaw AD Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 12:445–457Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pediatric off-label use of recombinant factor VIIaGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Young G (2008) New anticoagulants in children (2008). Hematology 245(1):245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Young G, Wohrley TJ, Weber C et al (2007) Pilot dose-finding and safety study of bivalirudin in infants less than 6 months of age with thrombosis. J Thromb Haemostasis 5:1654–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Nicholas Severin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sawsan Awad
    • 1
  • Beth Shields
    • 1
  • Joan Hoffman
    • 1
  • William Bonney
    • 3
  • Edmundo Cortez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rani Ganesan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aloka Patel
    • 1
  • Steve Barnes
    • 1
  • Sean Barnes
    • 4
  • Shada Al-Anani
    • 5
  • Umang Gupta
    • 1
  • Yolandee Bell Cheddar
    • 1
  • Ismael E. Gonzalez
    • 1
  • Kiran Mallula
    • 1
  • Hani Ghawi
    • 1
  • Suhaib Kazmouz
    • 1
  • Salwa Gendi
    • 1
  • Ra-id Abdulla
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Stroger Hospital of Cook CountyChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Combined Pediatrics and Anesthesiology Residency ProgramJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Wisconsin Children’s HospitalMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations