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Multiple Level Effects of Imazethapyr on Leptodactylus latinasus (Anura) Adult Frogs

Abstract

Imazethapyr is an herbicide that is used in a variety of crops worldwide, including soybean and corn. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biomarkers responses of adult Leptodactylus latinasus exposed to the formulation Pivot® H (10.59% imazethapyr) in the laboratory at concentrations and under conditions that simulate two potential field exposure scenarios: an immersion in field runoff (Scenario 1: 10 mg/L) and a direct exposure to the droplets emitted by spray noozles (Scenario 2: 1000 mg/L). In both scenarios, the experimental procedure involved completely immersing the frogs over a period of 15 s. Different endpoints were evaluated at several ecotoxicological levels 48 and 96 h after the herbicide exposure. These included individual (biometric indices and behavior alterations), histological (liver pigments and lesions), biochemical (catalase, glutathione system and cholinesterase activities) and genotoxic effects (micronuclei induction and nuclear abnormalities). Forty-eight hours after imazethapyr exposure, frogs submitted to Scenario 1 presented an inhibition of liver glutathione-S-transferase activity, whereas histological alterations and increased hepatic cholinesterase levels were observed in frogs exposed under Scenario 2. Ninety-six hours after exposure to the imazethapyr formulation, frogs from the Scenario 1 treatment presented a decrease in liver melanin and hemosiderin, increased hepatic catalase activity and micronuclei induction. For their part, frogs exposed to Scenario 2 presented a decrease in the hepatosomatic index, an increase in liver alterations, melanin reduction and micronuclei induction. The multivariate analysis enables correlations to be made between biomarkers of different organizational level in exposed anurans. Our result indicates that real exposure to imazethapyr formulations under field conditions may pose a risk to Leptodactylus latinasus populations living in the agroecosystems.

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Abbreviations

AChE:

Acetylcholinesterase

BL:

Blebbed nucleus

BN:

Binucleated cell

CAT:

Catalase

ES:

Enlargement of sinusoids

GST:

Glutathione-S-transferase

GSH:

Reduced glutathione

HSI:

Hepatosomatic index

HV:

Vascularization or congestion

IMZT:

Imazethapyr

LB:

Lobed nucleus

MMC:

Melanomacrophages

MNs:

Micronuclei

NT:

Notched nucleus

PCA:

Principal component analysis

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by grants from the National University of La Plata (Grants 11/N817 and 11/N847) of Argentina. The National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET) from Argentina and Graduate Program of UNLP to provided funding for JMPI to carry out the investigations and doctoral studies. CO received a fellowship (304552/2019-4) from CNPq—Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico.

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Pérez-Iglesias, J.M., Fanali, L.Z., Franco-Belussi, L. et al. Multiple Level Effects of Imazethapyr on Leptodactylus latinasus (Anura) Adult Frogs. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 81, 492–506 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-021-00880-w

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