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Preliminary Study of Multiple Stress Response Reactions in the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Trace Metals and a Thiocarbamate Fungicide at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations

Abstract

Gastropod mollusks have achieved an eminent importance as biological indicators of environmental quality. In the present study, we applied a multibiomarker approach to evaluate its applicability for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, exposed to common industrial and agricultural pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations. The snails were exposed to copper (Cu2+, 10 µg L−1), zinc (Zn2+, 130 µg L−1), cadmium (Cd2+, 15 µg L−1), or the thiocarbamate fungicide “Tattoo” (91 µg L−1) during 14 days. Metal treatment and exposure to “Tattoo” caused variable patterns of increase or decrease of metal levels in the digestive gland, with a clear accumulation of only Cd and Zn after respective metal exposure. Treatment with Cu and “Tattoo” caused an increase of cytochrome P450-related EROD activity. Glutathione S-transferase was inhibited by exposure to Cu, Zn, and “Tattoo.” Treatment with the “Tattoo” led to an inhibition of cholinesterase activity, whereas Cu and Cd increased its activity. Caspase-3 activity was enhanced by up to 3.3 times in all treatments. A nearly uniform inhibitory effect for oxidative stress response parameters was observed in all kinds of exposure, revealing an inhibition of superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity, a depression of glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and of protein carbonyl levels. Pollutant-specific effects were observed for the catalase activity, superoxide anion production, and lipid peroxidation levels. Due to the high response sensitivity of Lymnaea stagnalis to chemical impacts, we suggest our study as a contribution for biomarker studies with this species under field conditions.

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Acknowledgements

This work has been granted by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, and the State Fund of Fundamental Research of Ukraine (#M/13-2009, #F29/321-2009 and #132B).

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All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by LG, HF, OS, and RD. The first draft of the manuscript was written by OS and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Lesya Gnatyshyna.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

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Gnatyshyna, L., Falfushynska, H., Stoliar, O. et al. Preliminary Study of Multiple Stress Response Reactions in the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Trace Metals and a Thiocarbamate Fungicide at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 79, 89–100 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-020-00728-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-020-00728-9