Skip to main content

Seasonal Variation and Exposure Risks of Perchlorate in Soil, Indoor Dust, and Outdoor Dust in China

Abstract

A total of 97 paired soil, outdoor dust, and indoor dust samples were collected in the national scale of China in summer, and the perchlorate levels were compared with those in soil and outdoor dust samples collected in winter in our previous study. The median perchlorate concentrations in the outdoor dust, indoor dust, and soil samples were 8.10, 11.4, and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the winter samples due to the natural factors and human activities. No significant differences in perchlorate concentrations were found between Northern and Southern China in the dust samples, whereas the difference was obtained in the soil samples. In the terms of possible source, the perchlorate levels in the outdoor dust exhibited strong correlation with SO42− (r2 = 0.458**) and NO3 (r2 = 0.389**), indicating part of perchlorate in outdoor environment was likely from atmospheric oxidative process in summer. The perchlorate, SO42−, and Cl levels in the indoor dust were significantly related to those in the outdoor dust, suggesting that outdoor contaminants might be an important source for indoor environment. Furthermore, the human exposure to perchlorate was under relatively safe state in China except for special sites or periods with high perchlorate levels. Dust made an unexpected contribution of 41.3% to the total daily perchlorate intake for children, whereas 2.46% for adults in China based on biomonitoring, which deserves more attention.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Andraski BJ, Jackson WA, Welborn TL et al (2014) Soil, plant, and terrain effects on natural perchlorate distribution in a desert landscape. J Environ Qual 43:980–994. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2013.11.0453

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Blount BC et al (2009) Perinatal exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate in New Jersey mothers and newborns. Environ Sci Technol 43:7543–7549

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Blount BC, Alwis KU, Jain RB et al (2010) Perchlorate, nitrate, and iodide intake through tap water. Environ Sci Tech 44:9564–9570

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Catling DC, Claire MW, Zahnle KJ et al (2010) Atmospheric origins of perchlorate on Mars and in the Atacama. J Geophys Res Atmos 115:0–11

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Chithra VS, Shiva Nagendra SM (2013) Chemical and morphological characteristics of indoor and outdoor particulate matter in an urban environment. Atmos Environ 77:579–587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.05.044

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Christoforidis A, Stamatis N (2009) Heavy metal contamination in street dust and roadside soil along the major national road in Kavala’s region. Greece Geoderma 151:257–263

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Dasgupta Martinelango WAJ (2005) The origin of naturally occurring perchlorate: the role of atmospheric processes. Environ Sci Technol 39:1569–1575

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Diapouli E, Chaloulakou A, Mihalopoulos N, Spyrellis N (2008) Indoor and outdoor PM mass and number concentrations at schools in the Athens area. Environ Monit Assess 136:13

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Domingo JL (2012) Health risks of dietary exposure to perfluorinated compounds. Environ Int 40:187–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.08.001

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. EPA US (2005) Perchlorate and perchlorate salts

  11. Gan Z, Sun H, Wang R, Deng Y (2014) Occurrence and exposure evaluation of perchlorate in outdoor dust and soil in mainland China. Sci Total Environ 99:470–471

    Google Scholar 

  12. Gan Z et al (2015) Occurrence and exposure evaluation of perchlorate in indoor dust and diverse food from Chengdu, China. Sci Total Environ 536:288–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.057

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Geens T, Roosens L, Neels H, Covaci A (2009) Assessment of human exposure to Bisphenol-A, Triclosan and Tetrabromobisphenol-A through indoor dust intake in Belgium. Chemosphere 76:755–760

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Hatzinger PB, Schaefer CE, Cox EE (2009) Active bioremediation. Springer, New York

    Book  Google Scholar 

  15. Her N, Jeong H, Kim J, Yoon Y (2011) Occurrence of perchlorate in drinking water and seawater in South Korea. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 61:166–172. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-010-9616-0

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Huber DR, Blount BC, Mage DT et al (2011) Estimating perchlorate exposure from food and tap water based on US biomonitoring and occurrence data. J Expos Sci Environ Epidemiol 21:395–407. https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2010.31

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Jackson WA, Böhlke JK, Gu B et al (2010) Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States. Environ Sci Technol 44:4869–4876

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. John K, Karnae S, Crist K et al (2007) Analysis of trace elements and ions in ambient fine particulate matter at three elementary schools in Ohio. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 57:394–406

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Joly A et al (2010) Characterisation of particulate exposure during fireworks displays. Atmos Environ 44:4325–4329

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Kannan K, Praamsma ML, Oldi JF et al (2009) Occurrence of perchlorate in drinking water, groundwater, surface water and human saliva from India. Chemosphere 76:22–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.02.054

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Kirk AB (2006) Environmental perchlorate: why it matters. Anal Chim Acta 567:4–12

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Kosaka K, Asami M, Matsuoka Y et al (2007) Occurrence of perchlorate in drinking water sources of metropolitan area in Japan. Water Res 41:3474–3482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.05.011

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Kumarathilaka P, Oze C, Indraratne SP, Vithanage M (2016) Perchlorate as an emerging contaminant in soil, water and food. Chemosphere 150:667–677. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.01.109

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Li Y et al (2015) Particle size distribution and perchlorate levels in settled dust from urban roads, parks, and roofs in Chengdu, China. Environ Sci Proc Impacts 18:72–77

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Lybrand RA et al (2016) Nitrate, perchlorate, and iodate co-occur in coastal and inland deserts on Earth. Chem Geol 442:174–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.05.023

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Motzer WE (2001) Perchlorate: problems, detection, and solutions. Environ Forens 2:301–311

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Murray CW, Egan SK, Kim H et al (2008) US Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 18:571–580. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jes.7500648

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Pearce EN et al (2010) Perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure and thyroid function in first-trimester pregnant women. Clin Endocrin 95:3207

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Qu B, Hu W, Deng L et al (2016) Simultaneous determination of dithionate and sulfate in leaching solution from SO2 leaching pyrolusite by ion chromatography. Energ Fuel 30:8561–8566

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Rajagopalan S, Anderson T, Cox S et al (2009) Perchlorate in wet deposition across North America. Environ Sci Technol 43:616–622. https://doi.org/10.1021/es801737u

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Rudel RA, Camann DE, Spengler JD et al (2003) Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust. Environ Sci Technol 37:4543

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Saliba NA, Atallah M, Al-Kadamany G (2009) Levels and indoor–outdoor relationships of PM and soluble inorganic ions in Beirut, Lebanon. Atmos Res 92:131–137

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Shi Y, Zhang N, Gao J et al (2011) Effect of fireworks display on perchlorate in air aerosols during the Spring Festival. Atmos Environ 45:1323–1327

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Suh HH, Spengler JD, Koutrakis P (1992) Personal exposures to acid aerosols and ammonia. Environscitechnol 26:2507–2517

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Urbansky ET (1998) Perchlorate chemistry: implications for analysis and remediation. Bioremediation J 2:81–95

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Urbansky ET, Brown SK (2003) Perchlorate retention and mobility in soils. J Environ Monit 5:455–462

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Urbansky ET, Brown SK, Magnuson ML, Kelty CA (2001) Perchlorate levels in samples of sodium nitrate fertilizer derived from Chilean caliche. Environ Pollut 112:299

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Vella AJ, Chircop C, Micallef T, Pace C (2015) Perchlorate in dust fall and indoor dust in Malta: an effect of fireworks. Sci Total Environ 521–522:46–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.071

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Voogt W, Jackson WA (2010) Perchlorate, nitrate, and iodine uptake and distribution in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and potential impact on background levels in humans. J Agric Food Chem 58:12192–12198. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf101227d

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Wan Y et al (2015) Occurrence of perchlorate in indoor dust from the United States and eleven other countries: implications for human exposure. Environ Int 75:166–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.11.005

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Wang Y, Zhuang G, Xu C, An Z (2007) The air pollution caused by the burning of fireworks during the lantern festival in Beijing. Atmos Environ 41:417–431

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Wilkin RT, Fine DD, Burnett NG (2007) Perchlorate behavior in a municipal lake following fireworks displays. Environ Sci Technol 41:3966–3971

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Wolff J (1998) Perchlorate and the thyroid gland. Pharm Rev 50:89

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Yang L et al (2012) Airborne fine particulate pollution in Jinan, China: concentrations, chemical compositions and influence on visibility impairment. Atmos Environ 55:506–514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.02.029

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Yao L et al (2015) Levels, indoor-outdoor relationships and exposure risks of airborne particle-associated perchlorate and chlorate in two urban areas in Eastern Asia. Chemosphere 135:31–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.026

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Ye L, You H, Yao J et al (2013) Seasonal variation and factors influencing perchlorate in water, snow, soil and corns in Northeastern China. Chemosphere 90:2493–2498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.10.058

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Zhang T et al (2015) Perchlorate in indoor dust and human urine in China: contribution of indoor dust to total daily intake. Environ Sci Technol 49:2443–2450. https://doi.org/10.1021/es504444e

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 71532007).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhiwei Gan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 68 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, Y., Liao, R., Gan, Z. et al. Seasonal Variation and Exposure Risks of Perchlorate in Soil, Indoor Dust, and Outdoor Dust in China. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 75, 367–376 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-018-0526-x

Download citation