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The Effect of Bisphenol A on Growth, Morphology, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and PS II in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Scenedesmus quadricauda

  • Rong Xiang
  • Junqiong Shi
  • Yi Yu
  • Hongbo Zhang
  • Congcong Dong
  • Yanjun Yang
  • Zhongxing Wu
Article

Abstract

To investigate the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) and Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorophyta), we grew the two species at BPA concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L and examined their growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activity, and chlorophyll a fluorescence. The 96-h EC50 values (effective concentration causing 50% growth inhibition) for BPA in C. raciborskii and S. quadricauda were 9.663 ± 0.047, and 13.233 ± 0.069 mg/L, respectively. A significant reduction in chlorophyll a concentration was found in C. raciborskii and S. quadricauda when BPA concentrations were greater than 1 and 2 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, F v/F m, ΔF/F m′, and qP decreased significantly at 10 mg/L BPA in C. raciborskii but started to decrease at 10 mg/L in S. quadricauda. The changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (α, rETRmax) that were obtained from the rapid light response curves of both algae species showed similar responses to F v/F m, ΔF/F m′, and qP under BPA-induced stress. Values for all of the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in S. quadricauda were higher than in C. raciborskii; however, the nonphotochemical quenching measured in C. raciborskii was considerably higher than it was in S. quadricauda. In addition, lipid peroxidation (determined as MDA content) and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD and CAT) increased in both species as the BPA concentration increased. These results suggest that C. raciborskii is more sensitive to the effects of BPA than S. quadricauda and that photosystem II might be a target for the activity of BPA in vivo.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (XDJK2016C111, XDJK2017B010) and Natural Science Foundation Project of China SWU (SWNUB2011).

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rong Xiang
    • 1
  • Junqiong Shi
    • 1
  • Yi Yu
    • 1
  • Hongbo Zhang
    • 1
  • Congcong Dong
    • 1
  • Yanjun Yang
    • 1
  • Zhongxing Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), Chongqing Key Laboratory of Plant Ecology and Resources Research in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Life ScienceSouthwest UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

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