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Variation in Day-of-Week and Seasonal Concentrations of Atmospheric PM2.5-Bound Metals and Associated Health Risks in Bangkok, Thailand

Abstract

While effective analytical techniques to promote the long-term intensive monitoring campaign of particulate heavy metals have been well established, efforts to interpret these toxic chemical contents into policy are lagging behind. In order to ameliorate the interpretation of evidence into policies, environmental scientists and public health practitioners need innovative methods to emphasize messages concerning adverse health effects to state and local policymakers. In this study, three different types of health risk assessment models categorized by exposure pathways. Namely, ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation were quantitatively evaluated using intensive monitoring data of 51 PM2.5-bound metals that were collected on three consecutive days, from 17 November 2010 to 30 April 2011 in the heart of Bangkok. Although different exposure pathways possess different magnitudes of risk for each PM2.5-bound metal, it can be concluded that ingestion of dust causes more extensive risk to residents compared with inhalation and dermal contact. The investigation of enrichment factors reveals the overwhelming influences of vehicular exhausts on 44 selected metal concentrations in Bangkok. These findings are in agreement with previous studies that highlight the role of public transportation and urban planning in air pollution control.

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Acknowledgements

This work was performed with the approval of the Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEECAS), and National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA). The authors acknowledge all research staff of the Faculty of Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, for their assistance in field sampling of PM2.5.

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Correspondence to Siwatt Pongpiachan.

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Pongpiachan, S., Liu, S., Huang, R. et al. Variation in Day-of-Week and Seasonal Concentrations of Atmospheric PM2.5-Bound Metals and Associated Health Risks in Bangkok, Thailand. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 72, 364–379 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0382-0

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Keywords

  • Enrichment Factor
  • Aerosol Optical Depth
  • Total Suspended Particle
  • Hazard Index
  • Hazard Quotient