Advertisement

Survival and Growth of Freshwater Pulmonate and Nonpulmonate Snails in 28-Day Exposures to Copper, Ammonia, and Pentachlorophenol

  • John M. Besser
  • Rebecca A. Dorman
  • Douglas L. Hardesty
  • Christopher G. Ingersoll
Article

Abstract

We performed toxicity tests with two species of pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis and Physa gyrina) and four taxa of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae (Pyrgulopsis robusta, Taylorconcha serpenticola, Fluminicola sp., and Fontigens aldrichi). Snails were maintained in static-renewal or recirculating culture systems with adults removed periodically to isolate cohorts of offspring for toxicity testing. This method successfully produced offspring for both species of pulmonate snails and for two hydrobiid species, P. robusta and Fluminicola sp. Toxicity tests were performed for 28 days with copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol in hard reconstituted water with endpoints of survival and growth. Tests were started with 1-week-old L. stagnalis, 2-week-old P. gyrina, 5- to 13-week-old P. robusta and Fluminicola sp., and older juveniles and adults of several hydrobiid species. For all three chemicals, chronic toxicity values for pulmonate snails were consistently greater than those for hydrobiid snails, and hydrobiids were among the most sensitive taxa in species sensitivity distributions for all three chemicals. These results suggest that the toxicant sensitivity of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae would not be adequately represented by results of toxicity testing with pulmonate snails.

Keywords

Dissolve Organic Carbon Concentration Shell Length Control Survival Triethylene Glycol Species Sensitivity Distribution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

244_2015_255_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (265 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 264 kb)

References

  1. Arthur JW, Leonard EN (1970) Effects of copper on Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, Physa integra, and Campeloma decisum in soft water. J Fish Res Board Can 27:1277–1283Google Scholar
  2. ASTM International (2015b) Standard guide for conducting acute toxicity tests on test materials with fishes, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians (E 729-96 (2014)). ASTM Annual Book of Standards Volume 11.06. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  3. ATSM International (2015a) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels (E2455-06 (2013)). ASTM Annual Book of Standards Volume 11.06. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  4. Augspurger T, Dwyer FJ, Ingersoll CG, Kane CM (2007) Editorial: advances and opportunities in assessing the contaminant sensitivity of freshwater mussel early life stages. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:2025–2028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brix KV, Esbaugh AJ, Grosell M (2011) The toxicity and physiological effects of copper on the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Comp Biochem Physiol C: Toxicol Pharmacol 154:261–267Google Scholar
  6. Brix KV, Esbaugh AJ, Munley KM, Grosell M (2012) Investigations into the mechanism of lead toxicity to the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Aquat Toxicol 106:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cuttelod A, Seddon M, Neubert E, Commission ISS (2011) European red list of non-marine molluscs. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  8. Das S, Khangarot B (2011) Bioaccumulation of copper and toxic effects on feeding, growth, fecundity and development of pond snail Lymnaea luteola L. J Hazard Mater 185:295–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Schamphelaere KAC, Koene JM, Heijerick DG, Janssen CR (2008) Reduction of growth and haemolymph Ca levels in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis chronically exposed to cobalt. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 71:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duft M, Schmitt C, Bachmann J, Brandelik C, Schulte-Oehlmann U, Oehlmann J (2007) Prosobranch snails as test organisms for the assessment of endocrine active chemicals—an overview and a guideline proposal for a reproduction test with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Ecotoxicology 16:169–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dwyer FJ, Mayer FL, Sappington LC, Buckler DR, Bridges CM, Greer IE et al (2005) Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erickson RJ (2010) Toxicity Relationship Analysis Program (TRAP), version 1.21, EPA/600/C-11/002. USEPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. European Commission (2011) Technical guidance for deriving environmental quality standards. Guidance document No. 27. Common implementation strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). Technical Report 2011-055. EC, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  14. Gomot A (1998) Toxic effects of cadmium on reproduction, development, and hatching in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis for water quality monitoring. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 41:288–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grosell M, Gerdes RM, Brix KV (2006) Chronic toxicity of lead to three freshwater invertebrates—Brachionus calcyfloris, Chironomus tentans, and Lymnaea stagnalis. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hedtke SF, West CW, Allen KN, Norberg-King TJ, Mount DI (1986) Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organisms under naturally varying and controlled environmental conditions. Environ Toxicol Chem 5:531–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hydroqual (2007) Biotic ligand model, Windows interface, version 2.2.3. User’s guide and reference manual. Hydroqual Inc., Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson PD, Bogan AE, Brown KM, Burkhead NM, Cordeiro JR, Garner JT et al (2013) Conservation status of freshwater gastropods of Canada and the United States. Fisheries 38:247–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. May TW, Wiedmeyer RH, Brumbaugh WG, Schmitt CJ (1997) The determination of metals in sediment pore waters and in 1 N HCl-extracted sediments by ICP-MS. At Spectrosc 18:133–139Google Scholar
  20. Mebane CA, Dillon FS, Hennessy DP (2012) Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 31:1334–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nebeker AV, Stinchffield A, Savonen C, Chapman GA (1986) Effects of copper, nickel and zinc on three species of Oregon freshwater snails. Environ Toxicol Chem 5:807–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Orazio C, Kapila S, Manahan S (1983) High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of phenols as phenolates in a complex mixture. J Chromatogr 262:434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peters A, Simpson P, Moccia A (2014) Accounting for both local aquatic community composition and bioavailability in setting site-specific quality standards for zinc. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:105–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reed-Judkins DK, Farris JL, Cherry DS, Heath AG, Cairns J (1997) Functional responses in Leptoxis praerosa to increasing metal concentration and exposure duration. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:1666–1676Google Scholar
  25. Stephan CE, Mount DI, Hansen DJ, Gentile JH, Chapman GA, Brungs WA (1985) Guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses, EPA-PB85-227049. USWPA, Duluth, MNGoogle Scholar
  26. United States Environmental Protection Agency (1996) 1995 updates: water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in ambient water. EPA-820-B-96-001. USEPA, Duluth, MNGoogle Scholar
  27. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2007) Aquatic life ambient freshwater quality criteria—copper, 2007 revision. EPA-822-R-07-001. USEPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  28. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2013) Aquatic life ambient water quality criteria for ammonia—freshwater 2013. EPA 822-R-13-001. USEPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  29. United States Fish and Wildlife Service (1995) Snake River Aquatic Species Recovery Plan, December 1995. USFWS, Boise, IDGoogle Scholar
  30. van Wijngaarden RPA, Crum SJH, Decraene K, Hattink J, van Kammen A (1998) Toxicity of derosal (carbendazim) to aquatic invertebrates. Chemosphere 37:673–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang N, Ingersoll CG, Greer IE, Hardesty DK, Ivey CD, Kunz JL et al (2007) Contaminant sensitivity of freshwater mussels: chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Environ Toxicol Chem 26:2048–2056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang N, Dorman RA, Ingersoll CG, Hardesty DK, Brumbaugh WG, Hammer EJ et al (2016) Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 35:115–127Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Besser
    • 1
  • Rebecca A. Dorman
    • 1
  • Douglas L. Hardesty
    • 1
  • Christopher G. Ingersoll
    • 1
  1. 1.United States Geological SurveyColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations