Effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms on Genetic Damage in Humans Populations Exposed to Radiation From Mobile Towers
- 345 Downloads
All over the world, people have been debating about associated health risks due to radiation from mobile phones and mobile towers. The carcinogenicity of this nonionizing radiation has been the greatest health concern associated with mobile towers exposure until recently. The objective of our study was to evaluate the genetic damage caused by radiation from mobile towers and to find an association between genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and DNA damage. In our study, 116 persons exposed to radiation from mobile towers and 106 control subjects were genotyped for polymorphisms in the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined using alkaline comet assay in terms of tail moment (TM) value and micronucleus assay in buccal cells (BMN). There was a significant increase in BMN frequency and TM value in exposed subjects (3.65 ± 2.44 and 6.63 ± 2.32) compared with control subjects (1.23 ± 0.97 and 0.26 ± 0.27). However, there was no association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with the level of DNA damage in both exposed and control groups.
KeywordsComet Assay Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid Tail Moment Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid Buccal Cell
The work was performed in Animal Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Haryana), India. We are thankful to Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India, for funding and to all blood donors for their voluntary participation in the study. We are also thankful to R. K. Kohli, vice chancellor, DAV University, Jalandhar (Punjab), India, for providing the spectrum analyzer.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
No conflict of interest.
- Al-Khaliwi T, Meo SA (2004) Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population. Saudi Med J 25(6):732–736Google Scholar
- Franzellitti S, Valbonesi P, Ciancaglini N, Biondi C, Contin A, Bersani F et al (2010) Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8 GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. Mutat Res 683:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gandhi G, Singh P (2005) Cytogenetic damage in mobile phone users: preliminary data. Int J Hum Genet 5:259–265Google Scholar
- Garson OM, McRobert TL, Campbell LJ, Hocking BA, Gordon I (1991) A chromosomal study of workers with long-term exposure to radiofrequency radiation. Med J Aust 155:289–293Google Scholar
- Lalic H, Lekic A, Radosevic-Stasic B (2001) Comparison of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes from people occupationally exposed to ionizing and radiofrequency radiation. Acta Med Okayama 55:117–127Google Scholar
- Mild KH, Hardell L, Kundi M, Mattsson M (2003) Mobile telephones and cancer: is there really no evidence of an association? [review]. Int J Mol Med 12:67–72Google Scholar
- Natalí Bernardi BS, Natalia Gentile BS, Fernando Mañas MD, Álvaro Méndez MD, Nora Gorla MD, Delia Aiassa MD (2015) Assessment of the level of damage to the genetic material of children exposed to pesticides in the province of Córdoba. Arch Argent Pediatr 113(2):126–132Google Scholar
- Pastorelli R et al (1998) Impact of inherited polymorphism in glutathione s transferase M1, mocrosomal epoxide hydrolase, cytochrome P450 enzymes on DNA and blood protein adducts of benzo [a] pyrenediolepoxide. Cancer Epidmiol Biomark Prev 7:703–709Google Scholar
- Speit G, Hartmann A (2005) The comet assay: a sensitive genotoxicity test for the detection of DNA damage. Methods Mol Biol 291:85–95Google Scholar
- Sun CA, Wang LY, Chen CJ, Lu SN, You SL, Wang LW et al (2001) Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 associated with susceptibility to aflatoxin-related hepatocarcinogenesis among chronic hepatitis B carriers: a nested case-control study in Taiwan. Carcinogenesis 22:1289–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sun LX, Yao K, Jiang H, He JL, Lu DQ, Wang KJ et al (2006b) DNA damage and repair induced by acute exposure of microwave from mobile phone on cultured human lens epithelial cells. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 42:1084–1088Google Scholar
- Sun LX, Yao K, He JL, Lu DQ, Wang KJ, Li HW (2006c) Effect of acute exposure to microwave from mobile phone on DNA damage and repair of cultured human lens epithelial cells in vitro. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 24:465–467Google Scholar
- Tolbert PE, Shy CM, Allen JW (1991) Micronucleus and other nuclear anomalies in buccal smears: a field test in snuff users. Am J Epidemiol 134:840–850Google Scholar
- Vos O, Van der schans GP, Roos-verheij WS (1986) Reduction of intracellular glutathione content and radiosensitivity. Int J Radiat Biol 50:155–165Google Scholar
- Zhang Y (2010) Interactions of chemical carcinogens and genetic variation in hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Hepatol 2(3):94–102Google Scholar