Effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms on Genetic Damage in Humans Populations Exposed to Radiation From Mobile Towers

  • Sachin Gulati
  • Anita Yadav
  • Neeraj Kumar
  • Kanupriya
  • Neeraj K. Aggarwal
  • Rajesh Kumar
  • Ranjan Gupta
Article

Abstract

All over the world, people have been debating about associated health risks due to radiation from mobile phones and mobile towers. The carcinogenicity of this nonionizing radiation has been the greatest health concern associated with mobile towers exposure until recently. The objective of our study was to evaluate the genetic damage caused by radiation from mobile towers and to find an association between genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and DNA damage. In our study, 116 persons exposed to radiation from mobile towers and 106 control subjects were genotyped for polymorphisms in the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined using alkaline comet assay in terms of tail moment (TM) value and micronucleus assay in buccal cells (BMN). There was a significant increase in BMN frequency and TM value in exposed subjects (3.65 ± 2.44 and 6.63 ± 2.32) compared with control subjects (1.23 ± 0.97 and 0.26 ± 0.27). However, there was no association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with the level of DNA damage in both exposed and control groups.

References

  1. Abdel-Rahman SZ, El-Zein RA, Anwar WA, Au WW (1996) Multiplex PCR procedure for polymorphic analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in population studies. Cancer Lett 107:229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel-Rassoul G, El-Fateh OA, Salem MA, Michael A, Farahat F, El-Batanouny M et al (2007) Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. Neurotoxicology 28(2):434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agundez JA (2004) Cytochrome P450 gene polymorphism and cancer. Curr Drug Metab 5:211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albertini RJ, Anderson D, Douglas GR, Hagmar L, Hemminki K, Merlo F (2000) IPCS guidelines for the monitoring of genotoxic effects of carcinogens in humans. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Mutat Res 463:111–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Khaliwi T, Meo SA (2004) Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population. Saudi Med J 25(6):732–736Google Scholar
  6. Bajpai P, Tripathi AK, Agrawal D (2007) Increased frequencies of glutathione-S-transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) null genotypes in Indian patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Leuk Res 31:1359–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behrendt L, Jönsson ME, Goldstone JV, Stegeman JJ (2010) Induction of cytochrome P450 1 genes and stress response genes in developing zebrafish exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Aquat Toxicol 98(1):74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaszczyk E, Mielzynska-Svach D (2014) Micronucleus assay in epithelial cells from the oral cavity and urinary tract in female smokers and non-smokers. Environ Biotechnol 10(2):60–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cha IH, Park JY, Chung WY, Choi MA, Kim HJ, Park KK (2007) Polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes and susceptibility to oral cancer. Yon Med Jorn 48:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collins A, Koppen G, Valdiglesias V, Dusinska M, Kruszewski M, Møller P et al (2014) The comet assay as a tool for human biomonitoring studies: the ComNet project. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 759:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diem E, Schwarz C, Adlkofer F, Jahn O, Rudiger H (2005) Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro. Mutat Res 583:178–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Edvardsen H, Kristensen VN, GrenakerAlnaes GI et al (2007) Germline glutathione S-transferase variants in breast cancer: relation to diagnosis and cutaneous long-term adverse effects after two fractionation patterns of radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67:1163–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fenech M, Morley AA (1985) Measurement of micronuclei in lymphocytes. Mutat Res 147:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Franzellitti S, Valbonesi P, Ciancaglini N, Biondi C, Contin A, Bersani F et al (2010) Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8 GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. Mutat Res 683:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gadhia PK, Shah T, Mistry A, Pithawala M, Tamakuwala D (2003) A preliminary study to assess possible chromosomal damage among users of digital mobile phones. Electromagn Biol Med 22:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gandhi G, Anita R (2005) Genetic damage in mobile phone users: some preliminary findings. Indian J Hum Genet 11:99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gandhi G, Singh P (2005) Cytogenetic damage in mobile phone users: preliminary data. Int J Hum Genet 5:259–265Google Scholar
  18. Garaj-Vrhovac V, Orescanin V (2009) Assessment of DNA sensitivity in peripheral blood leukocytes after occupational exposure to microwave radiation: the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay. Cell Biol Toxicol 25:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garson OM, McRobert TL, Campbell LJ, Hocking BA, Gordon I (1991) A chromosomal study of workers with long-term exposure to radiofrequency radiation. Med J Aust 155:289–293Google Scholar
  20. Görlitz BD, Muller M, Ebert S, Hecker H, Kuster N, Dasenbrock C (2005) Effects of 1-week and 6-week exposure to GSM/DCS radiofrequency radiation on micronucleus formation in B6C3F1 mice. Radiat Res 164:431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hintzsche H, Stopper H (2010) Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users. Toxicol Lett 193:124–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hirvonen A (1995) Genetic factors in individual responses to environmental exposures. J Occup Environ Med 37:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hirvonen A (1997) Combination of susceptible genotypes and individuals response to toxicants. Environ Health Perspect 105(Suppl):755–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hutter HP, Moshammer H, Wallner P, Kundi M (2006) Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations. Occup Environ Med 63(5):307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ilhan A, Gurel A, Armutcu F, Kamisli S, Iraz M, Akyol O et al (2004) Ginkgo biloba prevents mobile phone-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Clin Chim Acta 340:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Juutilainen J, Heikkinen P, Lagroye I, Miyakoshi J, van Rongen E, Saunders R et al (2010) Experimental studies on carcinogenicity of radiofrequency radiation in animals. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 41:1664–1695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khalil AM, Qassem W (1991) Cytogenetic effects of pulsing electromagnetic field on human lymphocytes in vitro: chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and cell kinetics. Mutat Res 247:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kopjar N, Garaj-Vrhovac V (2001) Application of the alkaline comet assay in human biomonitoring for genotoxicity: a study on Croatian medical personnel handling antineoplastic drugs. Mutagenesis 16:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lagroye I, Hook GJ, Wettring BA, Baty JD, Moros EG, Straube WL et al (2004) Measurements of alkali-labile DNA damage and protein-DNA crosslinks after 2450 MHz microwave and low-dose gamma irradiation in vitro. Radiat Res 161:201–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lai H, Singh NP (1995) Acute low-intensity microwave exposure increases DNA single-strand breaks in rat brain cells. Bioelectromagnetics 16:207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lalic H, Lekic A, Radosevic-Stasic B (2001) Comparison of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes from people occupationally exposed to ionizing and radiofrequency radiation. Acta Med Okayama 55:117–127Google Scholar
  32. Lönn S, Ahlbom A, Hall P, Feychting M (2004) Mobile phone use and the risk of acousticneuroma. Epidemiology 15:653–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maes A, Gorp VU, Verschaeve L (2006) Cytogenetic investigation of subjects professionally exposed to radiofrequency radiation. Mutagenesis 21:139–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Markova E, Hillert L, Malmgren L, Person BRR, Belyaev IY (2005) Microwaves from GSM mobile telephones affect 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons. Environ Health Perspect 113:1172–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McNamee JP, Bellier PV, Gajda JB, Miller SM, Lemay EP et al (2002) DNA damage and micronucleus induction in human leukocytes after acute in vitro exposure to a 1.9 GHz continuous wave radiofrequency field. Radiat Res 158:523–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mild KH, Hardell L, Kundi M, Mattsson M (2003) Mobile telephones and cancer: is there really no evidence of an association? [review]. Int J Mol Med 12:67–72Google Scholar
  37. Natalí Bernardi BS, Natalia Gentile BS, Fernando Mañas MD, Álvaro Méndez MD, Nora Gorla MD, Delia Aiassa MD (2015) Assessment of the level of damage to the genetic material of children exposed to pesticides in the province of Córdoba. Arch Argent Pediatr 113(2):126–132Google Scholar
  38. Navarro EA, Segura J, Portolés M, Gómez-Perretta de Mateo C (2003) The microwave syndrome: a preliminary study in Spain. Electrom Biol Med 22:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Olive PL, Banath JP, Durand RE (1990) Heterogeneity in radiation induced DNA damage and repair in tumor and normal cells using the “Comet assay”. Radiat Res 122:86–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Othman O, Aly El Nahas S, Mohamed HM (2003) Mutagenic potential of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Cytologia 68:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ouerhani S, Tebourski F, Slama MR, Marrakchi R, Rabeh M, Hassine LB et al (2006) The role of glutathione transferases M1 and T1 in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer in a Tunisian population. Ann Hum Biol 33:529–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pastorelli R et al (1998) Impact of inherited polymorphism in glutathione s transferase M1, mocrosomal epoxide hydrolase, cytochrome P450 enzymes on DNA and blood protein adducts of benzo [a] pyrenediolepoxide. Cancer Epidmiol Biomark Prev 7:703–709Google Scholar
  43. Rinaldi R, Eliasson E, Swedmark S, Morgenstern R (2002) Reactive intermediates and the dynamics of glutathione transferases. Drug Metab Dispos 30(10):1053–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sakuma N, Komatsubara Y, Takeda H, Hirose H, Sekijima M, Nojima T et al (2006) DNA strand breaks are not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz band CW and W-CDMA modulated radiofrequency fields allocated to mobile radio base stations. Bioelectromagnetics 27:51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Salinas-Sánchez AS, Sánchez-Sánchez F, Donate-Moreno MJ, Rubio-Del-Campo A, Serrano-Oviedo L, Biol BA et al (2012) GSTT1, GSTM1, and CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to sporadic renal cell cancer. Urol Oncol 30(6):864–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M (2002) Study of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: incidence according to distance and sex. Pathol Biol 50(6):369–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schwarz C, Kratochvil E, Pilger A, Kuster N, Adlkofer F, Rudiger HW (2008) Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS 1,950 MHz) induce genotoxic effects in vitro in human fibroblasts but not in lymphocytes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:755–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Simko M, Kriehuber R, Lange S (1998) Micronucleus formation in human amnion cells after exposure to 50 Hz MF applied horizontally and vertically. Mutat Res 418:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singh NP, McCoy MT, Tice RR, Schneider EL (1988) A simple technique for quantitative of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 175:184–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Speit G, Hartmann A (2005) The comet assay: a sensitive genotoxicity test for the detection of DNA damage. Methods Mol Biol 291:85–95Google Scholar
  51. Stich HF, Stich W, Parida BB (1982) Elevated frequency of micronucleated cells in the buccal mucosa of individuals at high risk for oral cancer: betel quid chewers. Cancer Lett 17:125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stronati L, Testa A, Moquet J, Edwards A, Cordelli E, Villani P et al (2006) 935 MHz cellular phone radiation. An in vitro study of genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol 82:339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sun CA, Wang LY, Chen CJ, Lu SN, You SL, Wang LW et al (2001) Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 associated with susceptibility to aflatoxin-related hepatocarcinogenesis among chronic hepatitis B carriers: a nested case-control study in Taiwan. Carcinogenesis 22:1289–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sun L, Yao K, Wang K, Lu D, Hu H, Gao X et al (2006a) 1800 MHz (GSM) exposure to eye lens cells in culture and analysis of DNA damage and gene expression. Mutat Res 602:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sun LX, Yao K, Jiang H, He JL, Lu DQ, Wang KJ et al (2006b) DNA damage and repair induced by acute exposure of microwave from mobile phone on cultured human lens epithelial cells. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 42:1084–1088Google Scholar
  56. Sun LX, Yao K, He JL, Lu DQ, Wang KJ, Li HW (2006c) Effect of acute exposure to microwave from mobile phone on DNA damage and repair of cultured human lens epithelial cells in vitro. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 24:465–467Google Scholar
  57. Tice RR, Agurell E, Anderson A, Burlinson B, Hartmenn A, Kobayashi H et al (2000) Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing. Environ Mol Mut 35:206–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tice RR, Hook GG, Donner M, McRee DI, Guy AW (2002) Genotoxicity of radiofrequency signals. I. Investigation of DNA damage and micronuclei induction in cultured human blood cells. Bioelectromagnetics 23:113–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tolbert PE, Shy CM, Allen JW (1991) Micronucleus and other nuclear anomalies in buccal smears: a field test in snuff users. Am J Epidemiol 134:840–850Google Scholar
  60. Trosic I, Busljeta I, Modlic B (2004) Investigation of the genotoxic effect of microwave irradiation in rat bone marrow cells: in vivo exposure. Mutagen 19:361–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Valverde M, Rojas E (2009) Environmental and occupational biomonitoring using the Comet assay. Mutat Res 681(1):93–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vijayalaxmi KS, Obe G (2004) Controversial cytogenetic observations in mammalian somatic cells exposed to radiofrequency radiation. Radiat Res 162:481–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vijayalaxmi KS, Bisht WF, Pickard ML, Meltz JL, Roti EG, Moros EG (2001) Chromosome damage and micronucleus formation in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to radiofrequency radiation at a cellular telephone frequency (847.74 MHz, CDMA). Radiat Res 156:430–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vos O, Van der schans GP, Roos-verheij WS (1986) Reduction of intracellular glutathione content and radiosensitivity. Int J Radiat Biol 50:155–165Google Scholar
  65. Wolf FI, Torsello A, Tedesco B, Fasanella S, Boninsegna A, D’Ascenzo M (2005) 50-Hzextremely low frequency electromagnetic fields enhance cell proliferation and DNA damage: possible involvement of a redox mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1743:120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yadav AS, Sharma MK (2008) Increased frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells among humans exposed in vivo to mobile telephone radiation. Mutat Res 650:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zeni O, Romano M, Perrotta A, Lioi MB, Barbieri R, d’Ambrosio G et al (2005) Evaluation of genotoxic effects in human peripheral blood leukocytes following an acute in vitro exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields. Bioelectromagnetics 26:258–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhang Y (2010) Interactions of chemical carcinogens and genetic variation in hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Hepatol 2(3):94–102Google Scholar
  69. Zmyoelony M, Palus J, Jajte J, Dziubaltowska E, Rajkowska E (2000) DNA damage in rat lymphocytes treated in vitro with iron cations and exposed to 7 mT magnetic fields (static or 50 Hz). Mut Res 453:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyKurukshetra UniversityKurukshetraIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryKurukshetra UniversityKurukshetraIndia
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyKurukshetra UniversityKurukshetraIndia
  4. 4.Department of Forensic MedicinePGIMERChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations