Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Blubber of Free-Ranging Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) from Two Southeast Atlantic Estuarine Areas

  • Patricia A. Fair
  • Gregory Mitchum
  • Thomas C. Hulsey
  • Jeff Adams
  • Eric Zolman
  • Wayne McFee
  • Ed Wirth
  • Gregory D. Bossart


Blubber tissue samples from bottlenose dolphins collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 were screened for 13 (17, 28, 47, 66, 71, 85, 99, 100, 138, 154, 153, 183, 190) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from dolphin populations in the Indian River Lagoon, FL (n = 58) and the Charleston Harbor estuary, SC (n = 53). Within each population, we investigated contaminant levels of PBDEs and the effects of factors including age, sex, the interaction of age and sex, and location. Six PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) were routinely detected in all samples using gas chromatography/mass spectometry methods. Significantly higher (p ≤ 0.0001) mean ΣPBDE blubber concentrations were observed for Charleston dolphins (\( \overline{X} \) = 5,860 ng/g lipid; range = 429–22,780 ng/g lipid) when compared to Indian River Lagoon dolphins (\( \overline{X} \) = 1,260 ng/g lipid; range = 195–3,790 ng/g lipid). PBDE 47 was the major congener representing ∼61% of the ΣPBDE in both dolphin populations, followed by BDE100, BDE154, BDE99, BDE153, and BDE28, respectively. Significantly higher (p < 0.0001) mean ΣPBDE were observed in adult male dolphins compared to pregnant and adult female dolphins at both sites, with gender differences two-fold in the Indian River Lagoon and twelve-fold for Charleston. For Charleston dolphins, the juveniles in addition to the adult males also had significantly higher levels compared to pregnant and adult females. This study establishes baseline levels of PBDEs in bottlenose dolphins for these two areas and is the first assessment of PBDEs in free-ranging dolphins. The levels of PBDEs in Charleston dolphins represent some of the highest measured in marine mammals and warrants further investigation of these emerging, bioaccumulative chemicals and their potential deleterious effects.


Brominated flame retardants Polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs Bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus 



We thank the numerous researchers who participated in the dolphin capture and release studies in South Carolina and Florida. We are especially grateful to Dr. Forrest Townsend, Mr. Larry Fulford, Mr. Larry Hansen, Mr. Steve McCulloch, the NOAA and HBOI staff and all of the veterinarians who provided their expertise, and the many volunteers whose help made the health assessment studies possible. Thanks are extended to the following reviewers: Dr. John Reif, Dr.Mike Fulton, and Dr. Malcolm Meaburn. This study was conducted under National Marine Fisheries Permit No. 998-1678-00, issued to Gregory Bossart, VMD, PhD of Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution in March 2003.

This study was supported through NOAA/NCCOS/CCEHBR, NOAA Fisheries Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program and the Florida Protect Wild Dolphins License Plate Fund.


  1. Aguilar A, Borrell A, Pastor T (1999) Biological factors affecting variability of persistent pollutant levels in cetaceans. J Cetacean Res Manage 1:83–116Google Scholar
  2. Aguilar A, Borrell A, Reijnders PJH (2002) Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals. Marine Environ Res 53:425–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alaee M, Luross J, Sergeant DB, Muir DCG, Whittle DM, Solomon K (1999) Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Canadian environment. Organohalogen Compound 40:347–350Google Scholar
  4. Alcock RE, Sweetman AJ, Prevedouros K, Jones KC (2003) Understanding levels and trends of BDE-47 in the UK and North America: an assessment of principal reservoirs and source inputs. Environ Int 29:691–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Betts KS (2002) Rapidly rising PBDE levels in North America. Environ Sci Technol 36:50A–52ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birnbaum LS, Cohen Hubal EA (2006) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: a case study for using biomonitoring data to address risk assessment questions. Environ Health Perspect 114:1770–1175Google Scholar
  7. Birnbaum LS, Staskal DF (2004) Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern? Environ Health Perspect 112:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boon JP, Lewis WE, Tjoen-A-Choy MR, Allchin CR, Law RJ, de Boer J, ten Hallers-Tjabbes CC, Zegers BN (2002) Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in animals representing different trophic levels of the North Sea food web. Environ Sci Technol 36:4025–4032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borrell A, Aguilar A (1990) Loss of organochlorine compounds in the tissues of a decomposing stranded dolphin. Contam Toxicol 45:46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borrell A, Bloch D, Desportes G (1995) Age trends and reproductive transfer of organochlorine compounds in long-finned pilot whales from the Faroe Islands. Environ Pollut 88:283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bossart GD (2006) Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health. Oceanography 19:44–47Google Scholar
  12. Crockcroft VG, DeKock AC, Lord DA, Ross GJB (1989) Organochlorines in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the east coast of South Africa. South Afr J Marine Sci 8:207–217Google Scholar
  13. Darnerud PO (2003) Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife. Environ Int 29:841–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Darnerud PO, Eriksen GS, Johannesson T, Larsen PB, Viluksela M (2001) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: occurrence, dietary exposure, and toxicology. Environ Health Perspect 109:49–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeWit CA (2002) An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment. Chemosphere 46:583–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. EPA (2006) Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Available from (accessed on September 21, 2006, last updated June 13, 2006)
  17. Eriksson P, Viberg H, Jakobsson E, Orn U, Fredriksson A (2002) A brominated flame retardant, 2,2‘,4,4‘,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether: uptake, retention, and induction of neurobehavioral alterations in mice during a critical phase of neonatal brain development. Toxicol Sci 67:98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fair PA, Adams JD, Zolman E, McCulloch SD, Goldstein JD, Murdoch ME, Varela R, Hansen L, Townsend F, Kucklick J, Bryan C, Christopher S, Pugh R, Bossart GD (2006) Protocols for conducting dolphin capture–release health assessment studies. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 49. NOAAGoogle Scholar
  19. Fair PA, Becker PR (2000) Review of stress in marine mammals. J Aquatic Ecosystem Stress Recovery 7:335–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gill U, Chu I, Ryan JJ, Feeley M (2004) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: human tissue levels and toxicology. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 183:55–97Google Scholar
  21. Hagland PS, Zook DR, Buser H, Hu J (1997) Identification and quantification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and methoxy-polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Baltic biota. Environ Sci Technol 31:3281–3287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hakk H, Letcher RJ (2003) Metabolism in the toxicokinetics and fate of brominated flame retardants: a review. Environ Int 29:801–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hall AJ, Kalantzi OI, Thomas GO (2003) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in grey seals during their first year of life. Are they thyroid hormone endocrine disrupters? Environ Pollut 126:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hallgren S, Darnerud PO (2002) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated parffins (CPs) in rats: testing interactions and mechanisms for thyroid hormone effects. Toxicology 177:227–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hardy ML (2002) A comparison of the properties of the major commercial PBDPO/PBDE product to those of major PBB and PCB products. Chemosphere 46:717–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hites RA (2004) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: a meta-analysis of concentrations. Environ Sci Technol 38:945–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hohn AA, Scott MD, Wells RS, Sweeney JC, Irvine AB (1989) Growth layers in teeth from known-age, free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. Marine Mamm Sci 5:315–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Houde M, Hoekstra PF, Solomon KR, Muir DCG (2005) Organohalogen contaminants in delphinoid cetaceans. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 184:1–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ikonomou MG, Rayne S, Addison RF (2002) Exponential increases of the brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in the Canadian arctic from 1981 to 2000. Environ Sci Technol 36:1886–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jepson PD, Bennett PM, Deaville R, Allchin CR, Baker JR, Law RJ (2005) Relationship between polychlorinated biphenyls and health status in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) stranded in the United Kingdom. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:238–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johansen P, Muir DCG, Asmund G, Riget F (2004) Contaminants in the traditional Greenland diet. NERI Technical Report No. 492. NERI, Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson-Restrepo B, Kannan K, Addink R, Adams DH (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in a marine foodweb of coastal Florida. Environ Sci Technol 39:8243–8250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jones KC, de Voogt P (1999) Persistent organic pollutants (POPs): state of the science. Environ Pollut 100:209–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kajiwara NA, Kamikawa S, Ramu K, Ueno D, Yamada TK, Subramanian A, Lam PKS, Jefferson TA, Prudente M, Chung K, Tanabe S (2006) Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl etheres (PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans. Chemosphere 64:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kajiwara N, Matsuoka S, Iwata H, Tanabe S, Rosas FCW, Fillmann G, Readman JW (2004) Contamination by persistent organochlorines in cetaceans incidentally caught along Brazilian coastal waters. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 46:124–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kalantzi OI, Hall AJ, Thomas GO, Jones KC (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and selected organochlorine chemicals in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the North Sea. Chemosphere 58:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kannan K, Hun Yun S, Evans TJ (2006) Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated contaminants in livers of polar bears from Alaska. Environ Sci Technol 39:9057–9063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kannan K, Ramu K, Kajiwara N, Sinha RK, Tanabe S (2005) Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Irrawaddy dolphins from India. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49:415–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kierkegaard A, Bignert A, Sellstrom U, Olsson M, Asplund L, Jansson B, de Wit C (2004) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their methoxylated derivatives in fish from Swedish waters with emphasis on temporal trends 1967–2000. Environ Pollut 130:187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koopman HN (2001) The structure and function of the blubber of odontocetes. PhD thesis, Duke University, Durham, NCGoogle Scholar
  41. Krahn M, Herman DP, Yitalo GM, Sloan CA, Burrows DG, Hobbs RC, Mahoney BA, Yanagida GK, Calmbokidis J, Moore SE. (2004) Stratification of lipids, fatty acids and organochlorine contaminants in blubber of white whales and killer whales. J Cetacean Res Manage 6:175–189Google Scholar
  42. Krahn MM, Yitalo GM, DG B, Calambokidis J, Moore SE, Gosho M, Gearin P, Plesha PD, Brownell RLJ, Blokhin SA, Tilbury KL, Rowles T, Stein JE (2001) Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and lipid profiles in eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). J Cetacean Res Manage 31:19–29Google Scholar
  43. Kuehl DW, Haebler R (1995) Organochlorine, organobromine, metal, and selenium residues in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Gulf of Mexico, 1990. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 28:494–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kuehl DW, Haebler R, Potter C (1991) Chemical residues in dolphins from the U.S. Atlantic coast including Atlantic bottlenose obtained during the 1987/88 mass mortality. Chemosphere 22:1071–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Law RJ, Allchin CR, Bennett ME, Morris S, Rogan E (2002) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in two species of marine top predators from England and Wales. Chemosphere 46:673–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Law RJ, Allchin CR, de Boer J, Covaci A, Herzke D, Lepom P, Morris S, Tronczynski J, de Wit CA (2006) Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the European environment. Chemosphere 64:187–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lebeuf M, Gouteux B, Measures L, Trottier S (2004) Levels and temporal trends (1988–1999) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence estuary, Canada. Environ Sci Technol 38:2971–2977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lindstrom G, Wingfors H, Dam M, van Bavel B (1999) Identification of 19 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) from the Atlantic. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 36:355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Luross JM, Alaee M, Sergent DB, Whittle DM, Solomon KR (2000) Spatial and temporal distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in lake trout from the Great Lakes. Organohalogen Compound 47:73–76Google Scholar
  50. Mazdai A, Dodder NG, Abernathy MP, Hites RA, Bigsby RM (2003) Polybroinated diphenyl ethers in maternal and fetal blood samples. Environ Health Perspect 111:1249–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mazzoil MSD, McCulloch SD, Defran RH (2005) Observations on the site fidelity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Florida Sci 68:217–227Google Scholar
  52. McDonald TA (2002) A perspective on the potential health risks of PBDEs. Chemosphere 46:745–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McDonald TA (2005) Polybrominated diphenylether levels among United States residents: daily intake and risk of harm to the developing brain and reproductive organs. Integr Environ Assess Manage 1:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mead JG, Potter CW (1990) Natural history of bottlenose dolphins along the central Atlantic coast of the United States. In: Leatherwood S, Reeves RR (eds) The bottlenose dolphin. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 165–195Google Scholar
  55. Muir DCG, Backus S, Derocher AE, Dietz R, Evans TJ, Gabrielsen GW, Nagy J, Norstrom RJ, Sonne C, Stirling I, Taylor MK, Letcher RJ (2006) Brominated flame retardants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, East Greenland, and Svalbard. Environ Sci Technol 40:449–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Norstrom RJ, Simon M, Moisey J, Wakeford B, Weseloh D (2002) Geographical distribution (2000) and temporal trends (1981–2000) of brominated diphenyl ethers in Great Lakes herring gull eggs. Environ Sci Technol 36:4783–4789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. NTP (1986) Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of decabromodiphenyl oxide (CAS No. 1163-19-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies). National Toxicology Program Technical Report 309, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NCGoogle Scholar
  58. Ramu K, Kajiwara N, Tanabe S, Lam PKS, Jefferson TA (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Hong Kong waters: levels, profiles and distribution. Marine Pollut Bull 51:669–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Reddy ML, Dierauf LA, Gulland FMD (2001) Marine mammals as sentinels of ocean health. In: Dierauf LA, Gulland FMD (eds) The CRC handbook of marine mammal health. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  60. Reijnders PJH (1986) Reproductive failure in common seals feeding on fish from polluted coastal waters. Nature 324: 456–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. SCDHEC (1998) Watershed water quality assessment–Santee Basin. Technical Report No. 012-99. S.C. Bureau of Water, Department of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SCGoogle Scholar
  62. Schecter A, Papke O, Harris RR, Tung KC, Musumba A, Olson J, Birnbaum L (2006) Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in an expanded market basket survey of U.S. food and estimated PBDE dietary intake by age and sex. Environ Health Perspect 114:1515–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schecter A, Papke O, Ryan RR, Rosen R, Tung KC, Pavuk M, Staskal D, Birnbaum L, Quynh HT, Constable JD (2004) PBDEs in U.S. milk, blood, and food and temporal trends for PBDEs, PCDDs, and PCBs in U.S. Organohalogen Compound 66:2834–2840Google Scholar
  64. She JW, Petreas M, Winkler J, Visita P, McKinney M, Kopec D (2002) PBDEs in the San Francisco Bay Area: measurements in harbor seal blubber and human breast adipose tissue. Chemosphere 46:697–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sigua GC, Steward JS, Tweedale WA (2000) Water-quality monitoring and biological integrity assessment in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Status, trends, and loadings (1988–1994). Environ Manage 25:199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sjodin A, Jones RS, Focant JF, Lapeza C, Wang RY, McGahee EEI, Turner WE, Slazyk B, Needham LL, Patterson DG (2004) Retrospective time-trend study of polybrominated diphenyl ether and polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in human serum from the United States. Environ Health Perspect 112:654–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sjodin A, Patterson DG, Bergman A (2003) A review on human exposure to brominated flame retardants—particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environ Int 29:829–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Speakman T, Zolman E, Adams J, Defran RH, Laska D, Schwacke L, Craigie J, Fair P (2006) Temporal and spatial aspects of bottlenose dolphin occurrence in coastal and estuarine waters near Charleston, South Carolina. NOAA Tech Memo NOSNCC0537, Charleston, SC, 243 pGoogle Scholar
  69. Stapleton HM, Dodder NG, Kucklick JR, Reddy CM, Schantz MM, Becker PR, Gulland F, Porter BJ, Wise SA (2006) Determination of HBCD, PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in California sea lions (Zalophul californianus) stranded between 1993–2003. Marine Pollut Bull 52:522–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stapleton HM, Letcher RJ, Baker JE (2004) Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners BDE 99 and BDE 183 in the intestinal tract of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Environ Health Perspect 38:1054–1061Google Scholar
  71. Stern GA, Ikonomou MG (2000) Temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in SE Baffin beluga: increasing evidence of long-range atmospheric transport. Organohalogen Compound 47:81–84Google Scholar
  72. Stoker TE, Laws SC, Crofton KM, Hedge JM, Ferrell JM, Cooper RL (2004) Assessment of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in house dust and clothes dryer lint. Environ Sci Technol 78:144–155Google Scholar
  73. Struntz DJ, McLellan WA, Dillaman RM, Blum JE, Kucklick JR, Pabst DA (2004) Blubber development in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). J Morphol 259:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tanabe S, Watanabe S, Kan H, Tatsukawa R (1988) Capacity and mode of PCB metabolism in small cetaceans. Marine Mamm Sci 4:103–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Thomas GO, Moss SEW, Asplund L, Hall AJ (2005) Absorption of decabromodiphenyl ether and other organohalogen chemicals by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Environ Pollut 133:581–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Thron KU, Bruhn R, McLachlan MS (2004) The influence of age, sex, body-condition, and region on the levels of PBDEs and toxaphene in harbour porpoises from European waters. Fresenius Environ Bull 13:146–155Google Scholar
  77. Tomy GT, Palace VP, Halldorson T, Braekevelt E, Danell R, Wautier K, Evans B, Brinkworth L, Fisk AT (2004) Bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and biochemical effects of brominated diphenyl ethers in juvenile lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Environ Sci Technol 38:1496–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tuerk KJS, Kucklick JR, Becker PR, Stapleton HM, Baker JE (2005) Persistent organic pollutants in two dolphin species with focus on toxaphene and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environ Sci Technol 39:692–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. van Bavel B, Sundelin E, Lillback J, Dam M, Lindstrom G (1999) Supercritical fluid extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs from long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) from the Atlantic. Organohalogen Compound 40:359–362Google Scholar
  80. Viberg H, Fredriksson A, Jakobsson E, Orn U, Eriksson P (2003) Neurobehavioral derangements in adult mice receiving decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 209) during a defined period of neonatal brain development. Toxicol Sci 76:112–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wells RS, Rhinehardt HL, Hansen LJ, Sweeney JC, Townsend FI, Stone R, Casper DR, Scott MD, Hohn AA, Rowles TK (2004) Bottlenose dolphins as marine ecosystem sentinels: developing a health monitoring system. Ecohealth 1:246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wu N, Webster T, Herman T, Paepke O, Tickner J, Hale R (2005) Associations of PBDE levels in breast milk with diet and indoor dust concentrations. Organohalogen Compound 67:654–657Google Scholar
  83. Zolman ES (2002) Residence patterns of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Stono River estuary, Charleston County, South Carolina, USA. Marine Mamm Sci 18:879–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia A. Fair
    • 1
  • Gregory Mitchum
    • 3
  • Thomas C. Hulsey
    • 2
  • Jeff Adams
    • 3
  • Eric Zolman
    • 3
  • Wayne McFee
    • 3
  • Ed Wirth
    • 3
  • Gregory D. Bossart
    • 4
  1. 1.National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNational Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health & Biomolecular ResearchCharlestonUSA
  2. 2.Medical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  3. 3.National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNational Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health & Biomolecular ResearchCharlestonUSA
  4. 4.Harbor Branch Oceanographic InstitutionFt. PierceUSA

Personalised recommendations