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Effects of Chlorpyrifos, Carbendazim, and Linuron on the Ecology of a Small Indoor Aquatic Microcosm

  • M. A. Daam
  • P. J. Van den Brink
Article

Abstract

To validate the use of small indoor microcosms for the risk assessment of pesticides, the fate and effects of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, and linuron were studied in 8.5–liter indoor freshwater microcosms. Functional and structural responses to selected concentrations were evaluated and compared with responses observed in larger-scale model ecosystem studies. Overall, the microcosms adequately displayed the chain of effects resulting from the application, although they did not always predict the exact fate and responses that were observed in larger semifield studies. Because closed systems were used that did not contain sediment and macrophytes, pesticides were relatively persistent in the present study. Consequently, calculated toxicity values were generally more comparable with those reported in studies with long- than with short-term exposure. Carbendazim had a higher overall no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) compared with experiments performed in larger systems because macroinvertebrate taxa, the most sensitive species group to this fungicide, were not abundant or diverse. Future refinements to the test system could include the addition of a sediment compartment and sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa. However, the simple design offers the potential to perform experiments under more controlled conditions than larger and, consequently, more complex model ecosystems, while maintaining relatively high ecologic realism compared with standard laboratory tests. Further implications for risk-assessment studies are discussed in an ecotoxicologic and methodologic context.

Keywords

Chlorpyrifos Phytoplankton Community Zooplankton Community Carbendazim Linuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature, and Food Safety (DLO/PO research programme 416). The investigators are indebted to S. Crum and A. Matser for pesticide analysis; R. Van Wijngaarden and J. Sinkeldam for assistance in, respectively, zooplankton and phytoplankton identification; D. Van Dijk for nutrient analysis; L. Van der Pas for laboratory assistance; and T. Brock for various valuable discussions and review of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CESAM & Department of BiologyUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Alterra, Wageningen University and Research centreWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality ManagementWageningen University and Research center, Wageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

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