Ecological Effects of Spring and Late Summer Applications of Lambda-Cyhalothrin on Freshwater Microcosms

  • R. P. A. Van Wijngaarden
  • T. C. M. Brock
  • P. J. van den Brink
  • R. Gylstra
  • S. J. Maund
Article

Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare the effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin (treated at 10, 25, 50, 100, 250 ng active ingredient a.i./L) on a drainage ditch ecosystem in spring and late summer. Microcosms (water volume approximately 430 L) were established using enclosures in a 50-cm–deep experimental ditch system containing communities typical of macrophyte-dominated freshwater ecosystems. Effects on macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, and community metabolism were assessed and evaluated using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. The macroinvertebrate community responded most clearly to treatment and, as anticipated, insects and crustaceans were among the most sensitive organisms. Statistical analysis showed that the underlying community structure was significantly different between the spring and summer experiments. However, the most sensitive species (Chaoborus obscuripes and Gammarus pulex) were abundant in spring as well as in late summer. In spring and late summer, only slight and transient effects were observed at the community level in the 10-ng/L treatment. Overall, the study did not show substantial differences in the responses of sensitive taxa between spring and late summer treatments, and effects thresholds were similar irrespective of season of treatment.

Keywords

Macrophyte Treatment Level Late Summer Macroinvertebrate Community Monte Carlo Permutation Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are indebted to Gertie Arts, Martin van den Hoorn, Caroline van Rhenen, Dick Belgers, Tjeerd-Herm van den Hoek, Jos Sinkeldam, Stefanie Janssen, Wendy Beekman, Fred Bransen, Alex Schroer, and Christy Udoh. The work was funded by LNV Research Programme 359 and Syngenta Crop Protection AG.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. A. Van Wijngaarden
    • 1
  • T. C. M. Brock
    • 1
  • P. J. van den Brink
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Gylstra
    • 2
  • S. J. Maund
    • 3
  1. 1.AlterraWageningen University and Research CentreWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality ManagementWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Syngenta Crop Protection AGSwitzerland

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