Concentrations of Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc in Fish from Mining-Influenced Waters of Northeastern Oklahoma: Sampling of Blood, Carcass, and Liver for Aquatic Biomonitoring

  • William G. Brumbaugh
  • Christopher J. Schmitt
  • Thomas W. May
Article

Abstract

The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a “positive control” (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were highly significant (p ≤ 0.001). Our data indicate that potentially nonlethal blood sampling can be useful for monitoring of selected metals in carp, catfish, and perhaps other fishes.

References

  1. Allen GT, Wilson RW (1992) Trace elements and organic compounds in the Spring River basin of southeastern Kansas in 1988. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Contaminant Report No. R6/505M/91 Manhattan, KS, 60ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Barks JH (1977) Effects of abandoned lead and zinc mines and tailings piles on water quality in the Joplin area, Missouri. US Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 77–75 Rolla, Missouri, 49ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Breckenridge, RP, Manguba, M, Anderson, PJ, Bartish, TM 2002

    Using biomonitoring data for stewardship of natural resources

    Hoffman, DJRattner, BABurton, GA,JrCairns, J,Jr eds. Handbook of ecotoxicology2CRC PressWashington, DC233255
    Google Scholar
  4. Brumbaugh WG, Krabbenhoft DP, Helsel DR, Wiener JG, Echols KR (2001) A national pilot study of mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems along multiple gradients: bioaccumulation in fish. US Geological Survey Biological Sciences Report USGS/BRD/BSR-2001-0009, Columbia, Missouri, 25 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Crawford JK, Luoma SN (1993) Guidelines for studies of contaminants in biological tissues for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 92–494 Reston, Virginia, 69 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Cizdziel, JV, Hinners, TA, Cross, CL, Pollard, JE 2003Distribution of mercury in the tissues of five species of freshwater fish from Lake Mead, USAJ Environ Monit5802807Google Scholar
  7. Czarneski, J 1985Accumulation of lead in fish from Missouri streams affected by lead miningBull Environ Contam Toxicol34736745Google Scholar
  8. Davis JV, Schumacher JG (1992) Water quality characterization of the Spring River basin, southwestern Missouri and southeastern Kansas. US Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 90–4176 Rolla, Missouri, 112ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Dieter MP (1979) Blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) to monitor lead contamination in canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria). In: Animals as monitors of environmental pollution. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 177–191Google Scholar
  10. Dwyer FJ (1985) An evaluation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to lead. Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, 69 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Dwyer, FJ, Schmitt, CJ, Finger, SE, Mehrle, PM 1988Biochemical changes in longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, associated with lead, cadmium and zinc from mine tailingsJ Fish Biol33307317Google Scholar
  12. Finelli, V 1977

    Lead, zinc, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

    Lee, SPeirano, B eds. Biochemical effects of environmental pollutantsAnn Arbor Science PublishersAnn Arbor, Michigan351364
    Google Scholar
  13. Flint, PL, Petersen, MR, Grand, JB 1997Exposure of spectacled eiders and other diving ducks to lead in western AlaskaCan J Zool75439443Google Scholar
  14. Franson, JC, Schmutz, JA, Creekmore, LH, Fowler, AC 1999Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western AlaskaEnviron Toxicol Chem18965969Google Scholar
  15. Gale, NL, Adams, CD, Wixson, BG, Loftin, KA, Huang, Y-W 2004Lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium in fish and sediments from the Big River and Flat Creek of Missouri’s old lead beltEnviron Geochem Health263749Google Scholar
  16. Giesy, JP, Wiener, JG 1977Frequency distributions of trace metal concentrations in five freshwater fishesTrans Am Fish Soc106393403Google Scholar
  17. Goldstein, RM, DeWeese, LR 1999Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoringJ Am Water Resour Assoc3511331140Google Scholar
  18. Harrison, SE, Klaverkamp, JF 1990Metal contamination in liver and muscle of northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and in sediments from lakes near the smelter at Flin Flon, ManitobaEnviron Toxicol Chem9941956Google Scholar
  19. Haux, C, Larsson, A 1982Influence of inorganic lead on the biochemical blood composition in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneriEcotoxicol Environ Saf62834Google Scholar
  20. Haux, C, Larsson, A, Lithner, G, Sjobeck, ML 1986A field study of physiological effects on fish in lead-contaminated lakesEnviron Toxicol Chem5283288Google Scholar
  21. Henny, CL, Blus, LJ, Hoffman, DJ, Grove, RA 1994Lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the Coeur d’Alene River, IdahoEnviron Monit Assess29267288Google Scholar
  22. Henny, CL, Blus, LJ, Hoffman, DJ, Sileao, L, Audet, DJ, Snyder, MR 2000Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d’Alene Basin, IdahoArch Environ Contam Toxicol3997112Google Scholar
  23. Hill, RH,Jr, Guillemin, M, Droz, PO 1988

    Sample collection: blood and urine

    Kneip, TJCrable, JV eds. Methods for biological monitoring: a manual for assessing human exposure to hazardous substancesAmerican Public Health AssociationWashington, DC3743
    Google Scholar
  24. Hodson, PV 1976δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity of fish blood as an indicator of a harmful exposure to leadJ Fish Res Bd Can33268271Google Scholar
  25. Hodson, PV, Blunt, BR, Spry, DJ, Austen, K 1977Evaluation of erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity as a short-term indicator in fish of a harmful exposure to leadJ Fish Res Bd Can34501508Google Scholar
  26. Hodson, PV, Blunt, BR, Whittle, DM 1984

    Monitoring lead exposure in fish

    Cairns, VWHodson, PVNriagu, JO eds. Contaminant effects on fisheriesJohn Wiley & Sons New York8798
    Google Scholar
  27. Jearld, A,Jr 1983

    Age determination

    Nielsen, LAJohnson, DL eds. Fisheries techniquesAmerican Fisheries SocietyBethesda, MD301324
    Google Scholar
  28. Johansson-Sjöbeck, M-L, Larsson, A 1979Effects of inorganic lead on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and hematological variables in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneriArch Environ Contam Toxicol8419431Google Scholar
  29. Martin, RB 1987

    Bioinorganic chemistry of toxicity

    Seiler, HGSigel, HSigel, A eds. Handbook on toxicity of inorganic compoundsMarcel Dekker, Inc.New York925
    Google Scholar
  30. May, TW, Wiedemeyer, RH, Brumbaugh, WG, Schmitt, CJ 1997The determination of metals in sediment pore-waters and in 1N HCl-extracted sediments by ICP-MSAtom Spectr18133139Google Scholar
  31. Nakagawa, HK, Nakagawa, K, Sato, T 1995Evaluation of erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in the blood of carp Cyprinus carpio as an indicator in fish and water lead pollutionFisheries Sci619195Google Scholar
  32. Neuberger, JS, Mulhall, M, Pomatto, MC, Sheverbush, J, Hassenein, R 1990Health problems in Galena, Kansas: a heavy metal mining Superfund siteSci Total Environ94261272Google Scholar
  33. Santolo, GM, Yamamoto, JT 1999Selenium in blood of predatory birds from Kesterson Reservoir and other areas in CaliforniaJ Wildl Manage6312731281Google Scholar
  34. Savory J, Bertholf RL, Wills MR (1987) In: Seiler HG, Sigel H, Sigel A (eds). Handbook on toxicity of inorganic compounds. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, pp. 29–31Google Scholar
  35. Schmitt, CJ, Dwyer, FJ, Finger, SE 1984Bioavailability of Pb and Zn from mine tailings by erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in suckers (Pisces: Catastomidae)Can J Fish Aquat Sci4110301040Google Scholar
  36. Schmitt, CJ, Finger, SE 1987The effects of sample preparation on the measured concentrations of eight elements in the edible tissues of fish contaminated by lead miningArch Environ Contam Toxicol16185207Google Scholar
  37. Schmitt, CJ, Brumbaugh, WG 1990National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program: concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in U.S. freshwater fish, 1976–1984Arch Environ Contam Toxicol19731747Google Scholar
  38. Schmitt, CJ, Wildhaber, ML, Hunn, JB, Nash, T, Tieger, MN, Steadman, BL 1993Biomonitoring of lead-contaminated Missouri streams with an assay for erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in fish bloodArch Environ Contam Toxicol25464475Google Scholar
  39. Schmitt CJ, Blazer VS, Dethloff G, Tillitt DE, Gross TS, DeWeese LR, Smith SB, Goede RW, Bartish TA, Kubiak TJ (1999) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: field procedures for assessing the exposure of fish to environmental contaminants. US Geological Survey, Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD-1999-0007, Columbia, Missouri, 68 ppGoogle Scholar
  40. Schmitt, CJ, Caldwell, CA, Olsen, B, Serdar, D, Coffey, M 2002Inhibition of erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in fish from waters affected by smeltersEnviron Monit Assess7799119Google Scholar
  41. Schmitt, CJ 2004Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, selenium, and zinc in fish from the Mississippi River basin, 1995Environ Monit Assess90289321Google Scholar
  42. Schmitt CJ, Whyte JJ, Brumbaugh WG, Tillitt DE (2005) Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States District of northeastern Oklahoma. Environ Toxicol Chem 12(6)Google Scholar
  43. Spruill TB (1987) Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas. US Geological Survey, water supply paper 2268, Lawrence, Kansas, 68 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute1999SAS/STAT user’s guide. Version 6, fourth editionCareyNorth CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  45. Sun, L-T, Jeng, S-S 1998Comparative zinc concentrations in tissues of common carp and other aquatic organismsZool Stud37184190Google Scholar
  46. Wiener, JG 1982Method for detecting trace-element contamination of fish samples from handlingEnviron Sci Technol169093Google Scholar
  47. Wildhaber, ML, Allert, AL, Schmitt, CJ, Tabor, VM, Mulhern, D, Powell, KL, Sowa, SP 2000Natural and anthropogenic influences on the distribution of the threatened Neosho madtom in a Midwestern warmwater streamTrans Am Fish Soc129243261Google Scholar
  48. Yoo, JL, Janz, DM 2003Tissue-specific HSP70 levels and reproductive physiological responses in fishes inhabiting a metal-contaminated creekArch Environ Contam Toxicol45110112Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • William G. Brumbaugh
    • 1
  • Christopher J. Schmitt
    • 1
  • Thomas W. May
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC)ColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations