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Synthetic Musk Toxicity to Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

  • G. Carlsson
  • L. Norrgren
Article

Abstract

Synthetic musk substances have been found in a number of environmental samples. Some of these chemicals have been detected in concentrations above 1 μg/L in water, which raises concern about possible effects on aquatic life. The toxicity of four synthetic musks, 4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitrophenylethanone (musk ketone), 1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (musk xylene), 1-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone (AHTN, tonalide) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, galaxolide), were studied in zebrafish by the use of two different early life-stage methods. In the first method, specific developmental characteristics during the first 48 hours were studied. In the second method, hatching and survival times were studied on eggs and larvae. The results on heart rate in the first test gave the following LOECs: musk ketone 10 μg/L, musk xylene and AHTN 33 μg/L, and HHCB showed no effect up to 1000 μg/L. In the study of survival time, LOEC for musk ketone was 100 μg/L, for musk xylene 33 μg/L, and AHTN gave no effect on survival time up to 100 μg/L. The LOECs for musk ketone, musk xylene, and AHTN in this study are in the range of what has been measured in sewage effluents and recipients, and consequently these substances may have adverse impact on wild fish.

Keywords

Toxicity Sewage Survival Time Early Life Life Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Carlsson
    • 1
  • L. Norrgren
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7028, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden, The Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU), UppsalaSweden

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