Better endoscopic vision is mandatory for successful ureteroscopic stone operations to achieve shorter operating time. However, an important impairing factor for a good endoscopic view is the cloudiness of vision which was formed during laser fragmentation. Holmium laser fragmentation of calcium oxalate stones produces calcium carbonate solubility of which is dependent on pH, citrate, and phosphate. In this ex vivo research, the solubility of calcium carbonate has been investigated in solutions composed of various concentrations of citrate and phosphate buffered at different pH levels after laser fragmentation of calcium oxalate stones. Calcium oxalate stones were placed into the laboratory tubes filled with various concentrations of citrate–phosphate buffers with different pH values. Laser energy in dusting mode was applied to the stones and spectrophotometric measurement for optical density (OD) was calculated for each buffered solution for clarity comparison. In the first phase, solutions composed of four different molar concentrations of citrate–phosphate buffer (0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 molars) at various pH levels were used. Then, the next phase of the study was designed to compare solutions demonstrating the lowest OD values with an isotonic saline solution. The results were most convenient at 0.5 molarity (pH = 6) followed by 0.4 molarity (pH = 7) in the first phase (OD values of 0.054 and 0.065, respectively). In the next phase, OD values of both buffered solutions were significantly lower than those of isotonic saline solution (p = 0). Two specific buffers have provided better optic visibility values after laser fragmentation supporting their use as an irrigation solution for the favor of less cloudiness.
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This study was approved by the Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydınlar University, Medical School, Board of Ethics Committee with the Approval No. 2107/9.
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Eren, M.T., Özveri, H., Kolay, M. et al. Ex vivo study: is it possible to overcome the blurriness caused by holmium laser fragmentation of kidney stones?. Urolithiasis (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00240-021-01285-z
- Calcium oxalate stone
- Retrograde intrarenal surgery
- Holmium laser