Biochemical and dietary factors of uric acid stone formation
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of “pure” uric acid renal stone formers (UA-RSFs) with that of mixed uric acid/calcium oxalate stone formers (UC-RSFs) and to identify which urinary and dietary risk factors predispose to their formation. A total of 136 UA-RSFs and 115 UC-RSFs were extracted from our database of renal stone formers. A control group of 60 subjects without history of renal stones was considered for comparison. Data from serum chemistries, 24-h urine collections and 24-h dietary recalls were considered. UA-RSFs had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher body mass index (26.3 ± 3.6 kg/m2) than UC-RSFs, whereas body mass index of UA-RSFs was higher but not significantly than in controls (24.6 ± 4.7) (p = 0.108). The mean urinary pH was significantly lower in UA-RSFs (5.57 ± 0.58) and UC-RSFs (5.71 ± 0.56) compared with controls (5.83 ± 0.29) (p = 0.007). No difference of daily urinary uric acid excretion was observed in the three groups (p = 0.902). Daily urinary calcium excretion was significantly (p = 0.018) higher in UC-RSFs (224 ± 149 mg/day) than UA-RSFs (179 ± 115) whereas no significant difference was observed with controls (181 ± 89). UA-RSFs tend to have a lower uric acid fractional excretion (0.083 ± 0.045% vs 0.107+/-0.165; p = 0.120) and had significantly higher serum uric acid (5.33 ± 1.66 vs 4.78 ± 1.44 mg/dl; p = 0.007) than UC-RSFs. The mean energy, carbohydrate and vitamin C intakes were higher in UA-SFs (1987 ± 683 kcal, 272 ± 91 g, 112 ± 72 mg) and UC-SFs (1836 ± 74 kcal, 265 ± 117, 140 ± 118) with respect to controls (1474 ± 601, 188 ± 84, 76 ± 53) (p = 0.000). UA-RSFs should be differentiated from UC-RSFs as they present lower urinary pH, lower uric acid fractional excretion and higher serum uric acid. On the contrary, patients with UC-RSFs show urinary risk factors more similar to those for calcium oxalate stones. The dietary approach in patients forming uric acid stones should be reconsidered with more attention to the quantity and quality of carbohydrate intake.
KeywordsUrinary calculi Uric acid Urinary pH Diet
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Alberto Trinchieri and Emanuele Montanari have no conflict of interest in relation to this paper.
All the procedures performed in controls and patients were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendements.
In consideration of the retrospective design of the study no specific informed consent was obtained, although an informed consent to use clinical data for research studies is routinely obtained from all the patients who are admitted to our institutions.
- 31.Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, Joffe BI, Ramokgadi J (2000) Beneficial effect of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis 59:539–543CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar