, Volume 44, Issue 6, pp 559–564 | Cite as

Effect of anxiety and pain on success of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) for treatment of proximal ureteral and renal pelvic stones

  • Oktay UcerEmail author
  • Yasin Ceylan
  • Fatih Ekren
  • Erol Ozan
  • Talha Muezzinoglu
Original Paper


The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of anxiety and pain on success of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) for treatment of proximal ureteral and renal pelvic stones smaller than 15 mm. One hundred thirty-two patients with proximal ureteral or renal pelvic stones <15 mm who were treated by a SWL and forty controls were enrolled in the study. State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) was used to assess anxiety of the controls and patients (before every SWL session). Pains of the patients were measured by a visual analog scale (VAS) at three times (T) of the sessions (T11 at 11 kV, T15 at 15 kV and T end of treatment). The mean STAI scores of the patients at the first SWL session and controls were 40.61 ± 8.71 and 36.11 ± 8.18, respectively (p < 0.05). There was statistically positive moderate relationship between STAI and VAS scores at the first SWL session. The mean size of stone in men and women were 11.16 ± 2.88 and 11.00 ± 3.41, respectively (p = 0.88). In the first session, the mean STAI and VAS scores of the men were significantly lower than the women. The stone-free rate (SFR) of SWL was 72.7 % in this study. The SFR of SWL in the men and women were 78 and 64 %, respectively (p < 0.05). Our data showed that the severity of anxiety and pain in the women were higher than the men. SFR of SWL in the men was higher than the women. The severity of anxiety and pain in the patients may affect SFR of SWL.


SWL Anxiety Pain Stone Ureter Renal pelvis 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oktay Ucer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yasin Ceylan
    • 2
  • Fatih Ekren
    • 3
  • Erol Ozan
    • 4
  • Talha Muezzinoglu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urology, Faculty of MedicineCelal Bayar UniversityManisaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of UrologyIzmir Bozyaka Training and Research HospitalIzmirTurkey
  3. 3.Urology ClinicPrivate Batı Urology Branch CenterManisaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineCelal Bayar UniversityManisaTurkey

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